Zambia is a country located in Africa. According to AbbreviationFinder, ZM is the two-letter ISO code of Zambia, and ZMB is the three-letter country abbreviation for Zambia.
Zambia. According to Countryaah, the national day of Zambia is October 24. The assistance that the Western countries received in 1996 was resumed in July. The reason was that donor countries seemed to see democratic progress in Zambia. Among other things, negotiations between the government and three opposition parties – held in Stockholm – resulted in a declaration stating that the democratic process would continue. The mood between the government and the opposition had been bad since May 1996, when a controversial constitutional change was implemented. Among other things, was demanded that the parents of the presidential candidates be born in Zambia, which means that former President Kenneth Kaunda cannot be candidated because his parents are born in Malawi.
In August, Kaunda accused the government of being behind the gunfire he was exposed to at a political meeting. However, the government denied this and the vice president promised to investigate the matter. Zambia was subjected to a coup attempt in October. A group called the National Rescue Council announced through the state-controlled radio that the army had deposed President Chiluba and taken over the leadership of the country. Five hours later, the president spoke from the same radio station announcing that the nightly coup attempt had failed. He also thanked the country’s army for its loyalty to the elected government. President Chiluba immediately freed the opposition from involvement in the coup attempt despite the fact that a week earlier Kaunda had predicted that the country was close to a political explosion.
Exception laws were introduced throughout the country after the coup attempt and the police were given unlimited powers to arrest suspects. A few days after the coup, opposition politician Dean Mung’omba, Zambia Democratic Congress (ZADECO) was arrested. Amnesty International appealed to the country’s government not to use the coup attempt as a pretext to arrest opponents. In December, however, Kaunda was also accused of being behind the coup attempt. Following appeals from the presidents of Tanzania and Zimbabwe, he was removed from prison and placed under house arrest. Kaunda then broke the hunger strike he initiated when he was imprisoned.
History. – Until the end of 1963 the Zambia (then Northern Rhodesia) was part of the Federation of Central Africa established in 1953 and in which the Whites of Southern Rhodesia prevailed politically; the United National Independence Party (UNIP), set up by K. Kaunda after the banning of the ZANC (Zambia African National Congress, founded in October 1958 by Kaunda himself) had been fighting against the Federation and for the independence of the country.). Under the pressure exerted by UNIP through the popular masses, Great Britain granted self-government; following the elections, the first African coalition government was formed in December 1962. New elections, at the beginning of 1964, gave the majority to UNIP; a new government, having overcome some internal difficulties, obtained the
In the first decade of independence, Zambia tried to improve the social situation: education was widely extended (in 1965 the University of Zambia was created) and the “Zambianisation” of both economic activities and bureaucracy and of the armed forces has made progress (but only in 1970 a Zambian was placed at the top of the army and still almost 10% of the jobs are occupied by foreigners). Despite the extensive government holdings in the mining industries (1969) and subsequent nationalizations (1973), there was no lack of economic difficulties – mainly derived from the consistent will of Zambia to break off all relations with Rhodesia and reduce trade with South Africa. – which have caused some discontent; the 1968 elections had retained the majority in UNIP (institutionalized as a single party since December 1972, after the constitution of an opposition party was prevented), but the reduced electoral participation in December 1973 probably means a weakening of popular consensus towards the Kaunda regime (re-elected president, but with 20% of votes against). Zambia, which has given valuable assistance to the Mozambique liberation movement (with which it maintains good relations after independence), is still at the forefront of rejecting South Africa’s policy of discrimination and supporting the nationalists of Rhodesia; the country has suffered considerable damage from the closure of the Rhodesian border since 1973 and the economic boycott. Cooperation relations with Tanzania are very good,
The independence of Mozambique (1974) has strengthened the political-strategic position of the Zambia, but the drop in the international price of copper and the military expenses to repel the Rhodesian attacks have caused serious economic difficulties and consequent socio-political tensions in recent years.. In the elections of 12 December 1978 the mandate of President Kaunda (who replaced Prime Minister Elijah Mudenda with Mainza Chona in 1977) was renewed but with a growing affirmation of opponents.