Turkmenistan is a country located in Asia. According to AbbreviationFinder, TM is the two-letter ISO code of Turkmenistan, and TKM is the three-letter country abbreviation for Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistan. On July 5, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan issued a letter questioning Azerbaijan’s ownership of the Kjapaz oil field. The oil field is located in the Caspian Sea, on the border between the two countries’ sectors. The letter was prompted by a July 4 consortium of Russian and Azerbaijani oil companies signed an agreement to jointly exploit the oil field. According to Countryaah, the national day of Turkmenistan is September 27. Turkmenistan’s Foreign Minister Boris Shikhmijradov called for the immediate cancellation of the agreement and a Turkmenistan-Azerbaijan commission to be set up to discuss the boundaries of the national sectors of the Caspian Sea.
At a meeting between Turkmenistan’s President Nijazov and Russian Federation President Yeltsin in early August, it was clear that the two Russian oil companies involved intended to break the agreement with Azerbaijan. Yeltsin regretted that he had never been informed of all the circumstances behind the oil business. Despite the Russian turnaround in the issue, Azerbaijani spokesmen insisted that the Kjapaz field, which is believed to hold 50-80 million tonnes of oil, belongs to Azerbaijan.
At the end of December, Turkmenistan agreed with Iran and Turkey to have the oil company Shell project a gas pipeline from Turkmenistan via Iran and Turkey to Europe. At the same time, a 20-mile gas pipeline between Western Turkmenistan and northern Iran was inaugurated, which will probably be the first part of the longer pipeline. Turkmenistan is rich in natural gas but had so far had some difficulties in finding strong customers. Turkey, for its part, wanted to break unilateral dependence on the Russian Federation in terms of natural gas.
Central Asian state. Occupied for 90% of the surface by the Qara Qum desert and inhabited largely by Turkmen populations with a distinct linguistic and cultural identity, Turkmenistan was part of the eastern Iranian area, Islamized in the 7th century. and then dominated by vicarious lordships of the Arab caliphal power, with Merv as the main cultural and political center. In the 11th century. the Seljuks, natives of the region, made it the basis of their expansion towards present-day Afghanistan, then overwhelmed by the Mongol advance in the 13th century. and from the conquest of Tamerlane in the following century. Later, the Turkmen territory was the scene of the wars and invasions that followed one another in the Indo-Iranian area; disputed by the Safavids to the rule of the Mongol khanate of Khiva, it was conquered by the Tsarist empire at the end of the 19th century., in the context of the trans-Caspian expansion towards the Indian region, opposed by England. Seat of bitter anti-Bolshevik resistance after 1917, the Turkmen region became, in 1924, the Soviet Republic of Turkmenistan; the opposition to the forced sovietization, led above all by the Basmachi, led to a strong exodus of the local populations towards Afghanistan. One of the most backward states of the USSR, Turkmenistan declared its independence in 1991, to be immediately subjected to the personal and tyrannical regime of the head of the local Communist Party, S. Niyazov (1940-2006), declared president for life in 1999 Upon his death in 2006, the country embarked on a path of moderate internal reform. In 2007, after a hard struggle for the succession, G. Berdymukhamedov, his close collaborator, was elected president.
The president inaugurates infection hospital
President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow inaugurates a new hospital for infectious diseases. He reiterates that Turkmenistan is free of the corona virus, something he has not done since the World Health Organization (WHO) visited the country in July. Opposition media abroad report an explosive outbreak in the country, which has closed its borders, banned worship services, closed restaurants and most shops, and minimized bus and train traffic.
Parliament will have an upper house
President Berdimuhamedow signs constitutional amendments that give Parliament a Senate-like upper house. The Speaker of the new House of Lords shall have the role of Deputy President if the ordinary President is unable to fulfill his obligations. Speculation is rife that President Berdimuhamedow intends to appoint his son Serdar to that position. The constitutional amendments are not expected to change the political system as Parliament is loyal to the president. Serdar Berdimuhamedow is currently a Member of Parliament and Minister for Industry and Construction.
“Food shortages worsen”
The shortage of subsidized food is increasing. The government is finding it increasingly difficult to obtain food at reasonable prices, and Turkmen often have to leave food queues empty-handed. Free market food prices have skyrocketed since the outbreak of the corona crisis last spring, but the shortage of food prices has plagued the population since 2016. Human rights organizations Human Rights Watch (HRW) and the Turkmenistan Initiative for Human Rights write. The government says that Turkmenistan has not had a confirmed case of the corona virus, but admits that the crisis in the world economy has a negative effect on the oil-exporting country. The deteriorating access to food is also due to the closure of the border with Iran due to the risk of infection. A large part of the imports usually come from the neighboring country.