Sweden Military

Sweden 1997

Sweden is a country located in South America. According to AbbreviationFinder, SE is the two-letter ISO code of Sweden, and SWE is the three-letter country abbreviation for Sweden.

Welfare society

In July 1945, the assembly government was replaced by a purely social democratic government, led by Per Albin Hansson and after his death in 1946 by Tage Erlander. The period 1945–51 was given its political character by a powerful Social Democratic offensive to pursue the interrupted reform work during the war and to build a welfare society with full employment, more evenly distributed income and wealth, social security and economic efficiency. In a comparatively large party political agreement, decisions were made on, among other things, increased public pensions, general health insurance and a 9-year unit school (later primary school). However, there was a fierce dispute over the tax increases with which Finance Minister Ernst Wigforss wanted to finance the reforms. Particularly a residency tax on undivided estate was considered by the bourgeois to be confiscatory.

Sweden Military

In the second chamber elections in 1948, the People’s Party under Bertil Ohlin won great successes. The Social Democrats returned, but with little need kept the government. In 1951, Erlander was able to broaden his parliamentary ground by incorporating four peasant allies, including party leader Gunnar Hedlund, into the government. Social reforms were pursued and defended against a bourgeois ideological offensive, led by right-wing leader Jarl Hjalmarson. In the 1952 and 1956 elections, this policy resulted in losses for both government parties, but especially for the Farmer Union, which chose to leave the government in 1957, since the political interest has come to focus on the issue of public service pensions.

The end of the ATP battle meant a weakening of the Right and the People’s Party and successes of the Peasant Association, which in 1958 changed its name to the Center Party, but above all a strengthening of the social democratic power position. At the same time, when the declining economic conditions of the early 1950s were transformed into strong production growth (the “record years”), conditions were created for further development of the welfare society. Child care, health care and the elderly were expanded; In addition, a general reduction in working hours, a 4-week holiday and extension of upper secondary schools, universities and colleges were implemented. In parallel with the social reforms, work was underway on a modernized constitution. Elections for single-chamber kingdom day were first conducted in 1970 (compare single-chamber reform). Parliamentaryism, which has been applied in practice since 1917, was established in the 1974 form of government. The monarch’s task was limited to representing the country. Female succession was introduced in 1980.

In 1973, the aged monarch Gustaf VI Adolf passed away and was succeeded by his grandson Carl  XVI Gustaf. At the parliamentary elections that year, the bourgeois and socialist bloc received 175 seats. The Social Democrats’ power monopoly was broken, and they could only rule with the help of the lottery. The effects of the international oil crisis were evident in a recession that hit hard-hit Swedish base industries such as ore exports, shipyards and the iron and steel industry. In 1976, the Social Democrats lost power to a bourgeois three-party government under center leader Thorbjörn Fälldin, the first bourgeois majority government since the introduction of democracy. However, it did not bring about an immediate change of system, but the new government fought the crisis with essentially the same methods that the Social Democrats used to use. On the other hand, political interest in new issues such as co-determination, job security, gender equality, the environment and nuclear energy was postponed (compare the nuclear energy issue). The environmental issues gave rise to a new party, the Environmental Party of the Greens, which in 1988 entered the Riksdag.

Since the nuclear issue in 1978 led to the dissolution of the tripartite government, Sweden was ruled by changing bourgeois governments, until the Social Democrats under Olof Palme’s leadership in 1982 regained power. Good international economic conditions during the 1980s led to a temporary improvement in Sweden’s economic situation, which the government utilized for continued expansion of the public sector. Furthermore, in 1983, a decision on employee funds was enforced. Olof Palme’s violent death on February 28, 1986 did not change this policy. However, some of the bourgeois opposition, inspired by neoliberal ideas, demanded a radical system change and had the opportunity to realize this when Carl BildtIn 1991, a government was formed, based on the Moderate Union Party (formerly the Right), the Center Party, the Liberal Party Liberals and the Christian Democratic Social Party. Employee funds were abolished, and measures were taken to stimulate enterprise and privatize and limit the public sector.

At the outbreak of the Cold War in 1948, Sweden initiated negotiations for a Scandinavian defense association, which, however, became unsuccessful, as Norway and later Denmark also preferred membership in NATO. Sweden then chose to go its own way according to the formula alliance freedom in peace aimed at neutrality in war. However, this policy, long personified by Foreign Minister Östen Undén, has not ruled out international involvement, including through active participation in various UN actions. After the end of the Cold War, it has emerged that Sweden was in fact cooperating closely with NATO to receive assistance in the event of a Soviet attack.