Sudan 1997

Sudan is a country located in Africa. According to AbbreviationFinder, SD is the two-letter ISO code of Sudan, and SDN is the three-letter country abbreviation for Sudan.

Yearbook 1997

Sudan. The prolonged civil war in the southern part of the country continued during the year. In January, the Government of Sudan announced general mobilization, and preparations for war against neighboring countries were undertaken. The government claimed that Ethiopia, Eritrea and Uganda received money from the United States to build up their armies to support the military-based Christian SPLA guerrilla militarily in South Sudan. The guerrillas have waged war against the country’s government for many years. The civil war, which divides the country into two parts, has lasted since 1983. The black and Christian population in the south do not want the Arab-Muslim government in the north to have any influence over their country. Among other things, the regime in Khartoum wants to introduce Muslim laws into the Christian part as well.

According to Countryaah, the national day of Sudan is January 1. The SPLA guerrillas, led by John Garang, had great military success and in April, Prime Minister Omar al-Bashir promised increased aid to the war-torn and impoverished southern province. However, the peace agreement that was concluded later in April escalated the strife, which among other things. was because the SPLA guerrilla did not sign the agreement. The hopes of achieving a peace agreement during the year were finally shattered in November when the negotiations were postponed until 1998. The parties were then far apart. The guerrillas in the south demanded independence for their area, while the government in the north offered to repeal Islamic legislation in the Christian territories in return for the guerrillas to withdraw their demands for independence. Many felt that the guerrillas had become less and less prone to compromise in line with their military victories.

The year in Sudan ended with US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright meeting with SPLA guerrilla leader John Garang in Uganda’s capital Kampala. The meeting was identified as important and indicated that the US now gave the guerrilla open support. The United States is also critical of the Khartoum government because it believes it supports international terrorism by providing terrorists with refuge.

In October 2013, a number of African Union (AU) countries criticized the ICC for being a Western racist body because it failed to prosecute war crimes committed by Western leaders or their allies, but only prosecuted African leaders. The AU demanded from the ICC that it protected African leaders from prosecution.

In May 2014, Christian woman Meriam Yehya Ibrahim was sentenced to hang for upholding her Christian faith, and 100 whips for “crazy”. The verdict on the pregnant woman sparked a storm of protests internationally, which in June led to her being pardoned. She was lucky. Sudan’s penal code is based on Sharia, and hundreds are sentenced every year to stoning, whipping or crucifixion.

The conflict between the government army and rebel groups in southern Sudan in the states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile further intensified during 2014. affected by the conflict, 500,000 internally displaced persons and 250,000 fled to South Sudan or Ethiopia. The conflict started at the same time as South Sudan’s independence in July 2011 and was an indication that many in the two states thought they should have been part of South Sudan.

Sudan became increasingly on edge with the UN during 2014 and in December the country expelled two senior UN officials. A number of Western countries tried to get the Security Council to condemn the deportation, but it was rejected by the other countries in the Security Council on the grounds that according to the UN Charter, a country has full sovereignty – even according to the UN envoy.

In December, Somalia resumed the military offensive in Darfur, South Kordofan and Blue Nile. At the heart of the offensive was the so-called Rapid Support Force (RSF) which consisted predominantly of government-run militia led by the intelligence service (NISS). In the months leading up to April 2015, militias ravaged the Jebel Marra region and committed extensive human rights violations. The Sudanese Air Force also took part in the offensive and in January bombed a hospital run by MSF and a host of schools.

October

Relations with Israel must be normalized

October 23

A few hours after Sudan was removed from the US list of countries that support terrorism, US President Donald Trump from the White House in Washington presents an agreement between Sudan and Israel which means that diplomatic relations will be established between the two countries. Israel and the United States promise to trade with Sudan and Israel will cooperate with Sudan in agriculture, migration and aviation. In September, similar agreements were concluded between Israel and Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. Previously, Jordan and Egypt were the only Arab countries with diplomatic relations with Israel. Israel is sending a cargo of five million dollars worth of wheat to Sudan. The normalization of relations with Israel divides the Sudanese.

The United States removes Sudan from the terror list

October 23

US President Donald Trump signs an order to remove Sudan from the US list of countries that sponsor terrorism. The blacklist has long prevented Sudan from receiving debt relief and loans from international bodies such as the IMF and the World Bank. The order is expected to make it easier for the Sudanese government to do something about the country’s crisis economy. In return, Sudan will pay a total of $ 335 million to relatives of the victims of the terrorist network al-Qaeda’s bombing raids on US embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi in 1998. The US Congress must also approve the decision, which it is expected to do.

The peace agreement is signed

October 3

Representatives of the Transitional Government and the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), which brings together a number of rebel groups in Darfur, the Blue Nile and South Kordofan, sign the peace agreement at a ceremony in the South Sudanese capital Juba. South Sudan has mediated during the peace talks. The agreement is comprehensive and also concerns issues such as ownership of land, damages for material losses during the conflicts and help for refugees and internally displaced persons to return home and more. Ending the armed conflicts in the country is one of the transitional regime’s highest priorities. A couple of resistance groups have stood outside the peace agreement: the faction of the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) in Darfur led by Abdelwahid Nour and a faction of the SPLM North in South Kordofan led by Abdelaziz al-Hilu. The latter has signed a separate peace agreement with the transitional government, which gives them the right to keep their weapons until the state and Islam have been separated in the constitution. The great peace agreement prescribes the disarmament of the rebels and their integration into the government army.