Panama Military

Panama 1997

Panama is a country located in North America. According to AbbreviationFinder, PA is the two-letter ISO code of Panama, and PAN is the three-letter country abbreviation for Panama.

Yearbook 1997

Panama. In mid-July, Panama sent 1,200 soldiers to the Colombian border. Their task was to curb unrest as refugees entered the country from the south. Towards the end of the year, Panama’s president discussed the border situation with his Colombian colleague Ernesto Samper.

On December 31, 1999, Panama will take over the operation of the Panama Canal and, in preparation, a congress was held in early September in Panama’s capital. The intention of Panama was to show governments and shipping companies that they are capable of taking care of the canal alone. However, the Congress was boycotted by most of the invited countries and shipping companies. According to Countryaah, the national day of Panama is November 3. The main reason was that Taiwan was invited to participate, against the UN’s advice and China’s strong protests. In September, the United States closed its southern command in Panama and moved it, primarily for financial reasons, to Florida. The Southern Command has Central America as its guard area.

Panama Military

Balboa – a panamanian dollar

Living in Panama is perhaps the most flexible in all of Central America. The climate is hot and humid all year round. The majority of citizens are mestizos, but the proportion of blacks and mulattoes is also high. The number of whites has increased as some residents of the former U.S. rental zone have wanted to stay permanently in Panama. And although Spanish is the official language of the country, Panama has also learned to speak English well. The dollar is the country’s official currency, it is but called the balboa by the man who “invented” the Pacific.


After the return of the Canal under Panamanian control (December 1999), in 2000 a five-year project was started for its modernization; at the same time the government was negotiating an agreement with the United States to suppress drug trafficking, which has intensified in the Canal. Although opposed by the opposition, in particular by the Partido Revolucionario Democrático (PRD), the pact was signed in February 2002. The introduction of laws aimed at imposing greater rigor and transparency in the financial system earned the country international approval and its removal from the black list of ‘tax havens’. The difficult economic situation, the increase in the unemployment rate and, above all, the widespread disillusionment in the possibility of relaunching the economy thanks to the reacquisition of the Canal, however, considerably tarnished the credibility of the president, M. Moscoso de Gruber, elected in 1999., who faced an increasingly aggressive opposition, while a growing number of consensus had been welded around the presidential candidacy of M. Torrijos Espino (son of General O. Torrijos Herrera, dictator of Panama from 1968 to 1981), belonging to the PRD. The presidential elections (May 2004) confirmed the predictions, assigning the victory to Torrijos Espino with 47.4 % of the votes.

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In the legislative elections, held at the same time, the Patria Nueva coalition obtained 43.9 % of the preferences and 43 seats (42 of which went to the PRD and 1 to the Partido Popular ), followed by another coalition, Visión de País , which had the 33.1 % and 23 seats (16 at the Partido Arnulfista , 4 at the Movimiento Liberal Republicano Nacionalista and 3 at the Partido Liberal Nacional ), from the Partido Solidaridad (15.7 % and9 seats) and by Cambio Democrático (7.4 % and 3 seats). Quieted the popular protests provoked by rumors that promised the privatization of the Caja de Seguro Social , the social security fund now close to bankruptcy, the government launched a series of pension reforms in December. To encourage the country’s economic recovery, the hypothesis of an enlargement of the Canal was considered, while negotiations with the United States (started in 2001) on a bilateral free trade agreement continued.