Anyone who has seen Florence will certainly agree that this is a wonderful city in Central Italy. The river Arno runs through the metropolis. Throughout the region about 1.5 million people live in Florence. Florence is the capital of the Tuscany region and the province of Florence. This Italian city is of particular importance in the cultural field. The visual arts in particular are very pronounced here. Florence has been known as the Italian Athens since the 19th century.
The landscapes of Florence
The Arno River meanders through the picturesque old town. This waterway used to be of great importance for general life in the city of Florence. Because at that time the river was used by trade as a means of transport. Unfortunately, it also brought a lot of suffering to the city through floods. The beautiful region of the Chianti is a gently rolling hill area that borders the city of Florence in the south. In addition, in the region of Florence there is also the elongated ridge of the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines.
The history of Florence
Florentina was the original city on what is now Florence. In 59 BC Christ Julius Caesar founded the colony of Florentina. This is the name of the Roman goddess of flowers and plant growth. At first, Florentina only consisted of a military camp and a square complex. The course of the road at that time can still be seen today.
Florentina was a very modern city for its time and was gradually equipped with thermal baths and an amphitheater. The lands were later released for building by veterans from former military service. These approvals were granted by raffle.
In the course of the development, a well thought-out road network was also created. Due to the good accessibility and the favorable location, the residents of Florentina were able to conduct trade and commerce at an early stage. The streets reached through Pisa to the sea. As a result, the Florentines were connected to all the cities there. The city grew richer due to the numerous trading opportunities.
After the end of the Roman Empire Like many other rich cities, Florence fell victim to severe destruction. Only after the Longbobards conquered the area did things start to improve again.
As early as the beginning of the 12th century, under feudalism, Florence became an autonomous city. In the further course of the story there were violent clashes between the supporters loyal to the papacy and the residents loyal to the emperor. In the end, the Guelphs, loyal to the Pope, were victorious.
The 14th and 15th centuries brought about another heyday for Florence. The city literally set standards and at the same time found its passion in it Art and culture. These two components are still important pillars of the city today. Many international great artists and important scholars came from Florence or settled here. Even Michelangelo and Botticelli lived in Florence. While Florence developed culturally during the Renaissance, it also became an important commercial and financial city for Europe. Many wealthy families moved their family home to Florence. So did the Medici, who rose to become a major European power in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Trentino-South Tyrol (Italy)
Until 1972, today’s name was Italian region of Trentino-South Tyrol nor Trentino-Tyrolean Etschland. It is located in the north of the country and covers an area of 13,607 square kilometers. Over a million people live in Trentino-South Tyrol.
A neighboring country is Austria, which is directly connected to the federal states of Tyrol and Salzburg Trentino-South Tyroladjoins. There are also borders with the Swiss canton of Graubünden and the Italian regions of Lombardy and Veneto. The function of the capital also partly takes over Bolzano, whereby the official capital of Trentino-Alto Adige is Trento.
Geography of Trentino-South Tyrol
Anyone who knows the Austrian South Tyrol can imagine that the Trentino-South Tyrol is also shaped by the alpine landscapes. The Dolomites predominate here. The highest mountain in the region is the Ortler, which is 3,905 meters above sea level. Today’s Trentino-Alto Adige region owes its original name to the fact that the main river in the area is the Etsch. Part of the region is covered by Lake Garda.
The history of Trentino-Alto Adige
The region of Trentino Alto Adige belonged to the Fürstete Grafschaft Tirol until the First World War. The area is made up of the two areas South Tyrol and Trentino. Until 1803 Trento was a prince-bishopric and was independent and autonomous. It was de facto dependent on Tyrol and belonged to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. As a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, Trentino was added to Tyrol and then belonged to Austria with South Tyrol from 1804.
The peace treaty of St. Germain in 1919 provided for the division of Tyrol. Part of it went to Italy, the other part to Austria.
During the time of Fascism was a kind of Italianization in South Tyrol. German place names were translated into Italian. The German language was completely banned and even German family names were transferred to Italian. The official language was Italian everywhere. This measure affects not only the schools and the courts, but also the media landscape.
Due to the strong industrialization, many workers from different regions of Italy came to Trentino-Alto Adige. The workers and their families moved here particularly from southern Italy and regions such as Veneto and Friuli. Bolzano in particular became a predominantly Italian city as a result.
After the end of the Second World War there was never any discussion that South Tyrol should be spun off from Italy. However, it was agreed that the German citizens living there had to be protected. In the Paris Agreement, the Italian Prime Minister De Gasperi and the Austrian Foreign Minister Gruber signed a treaty on the “protection and equal rights of the German-speaking group”. This allowed the German families to speak German again and to take their German name again.
Nevertheless, the government of the region of South Tyrol was interested in creating a majority of Italian citizens in all of South Tyrol through Italian immigrants. In 1957 the government decided to create 5,000 homes for these Italian immigrants. Then 35,000 South Tyroleans gathered for the largest rally in the history of South Tyrol to demonstrate in front of Sigmundskron Castle. For a long time there was frustration against this subliminal revitalization of the area among the South Tyroleans. Because of this simmering anger, a whole series of bomb attacks were carried out between 1956 and 1969. The aim was to achieve the liberation of South Tyrol in this way. Negotiations took place for a long time, with Austria playing an important role. It was decided to grant the region the status of an autonomous region. The Trentino-South Tyrol region has existed since then.