Brazil Military

Brazil 1997

Brazil is a country located in South America. According to AbbreviationFinder, BR is the two-letter ISO code of Brazil, and BRA is the three-letter country abbreviation for Brazil.

Yearbook 1997

Brazil. According to Countryaah, the national day of Brazil is September 7. President Cardoso assured himself during the year that he would be eligible for the 1998 presidential election. He did so through a constitutional amendment that was implemented in a democratic manner.

Brazil Military

In April, MST, the movement of the landless workers, conducted a demonstration called one of the largest aimed at the Cardoso government. The demonstration brought together more than 25,000 workers with united Catholic Catholic bishops, union leaders and prominent left-wing sympathizers. It turned against the government’s policy of a freer market economy.

In April, Congress passed a law that classified torture as a crime. The origin of the law was amateur films, broadcast by the TV channel Globo, which showed various forms of police brutality. It also led to nine military police officers being arrested in São Paulo and six in Rio de Janeiro. President Cardoso also appointed a respected reform friend to the head of the recently established Human Rights Secretariat in Brazil, which has the task of monitoring the police behavior in the country.

Throughout the year, more than 70 prison riots occurred in the state of São Paulo. The prison riots that occurred at the end of the year demanded the lives of more than ten people.

Vargas had promised free elections in 1938, but according to the Constitution he could not be re-elected. Therefore, in 1937 he conducted a coup d’etat and gave himself dictatorial power. That same year he proclaimed “Estado Novo” (new state). A model of state following the pattern of Italian fascism.

The new state brought only minimal changes to the power structure. It strengthened the alliance between the major property owners, the industrial bourgeoisie and the military. An alliance that would override the contradictions between these groups and subordinate to a strong state power characterized by political and administrative centralization. In connection with Estado Novo, the modern Brazilian trade union movement was created. The trade union movement became subject to the state apparatus, and developed into a social support organization for the workers, without the possibility of political impact. The international companies and parts of the Brazilian industrial citizenship had long wanted economic liberalization.

In 1945 – the same year that Vargas had released the political prisoners and promised new elections – he was ousted by a coup. The next five years were characterized by faltering central management. The forces that overthrew Vargas had a poorly founded political line with strong mutual tension. The government was a compromise, with Liberal General Eurico Gaspar Dutra as president. Vargas’s policy – with state support for the private sector – was largely continued. A number of measures were taken to encourage the expansion of the private industry. Foreign capital interests again began to assert themselves. In particular, the United States played a prominent role during this period, and an agreement with the United States guaranteed Brazil financial, technical and military assistance.

In 1950, Vargas was elected president by a large majority on a social reform program. But his position was uncertain because the military which had been in power for the previous five years constituted a strong opposition. Vargas underwent important reforms in the health and social services. Food supply, power supply and communication system were improved. Vargas again began to protect the national industry and safeguard the country’s commodities. Foreign companies’ export of currency was limited and initiatives were initiated to gain national control over the oil. In 1953, a state oil monopoly was established with the creation of Petrobrás.

As before, the unions were allowed to develop. But the pressure from the international companies grew stronger, and on August 24, 1954, Vargas killed himself. He left a political will in which he blamed “the dark forces” – a reference to imperialism and its domestic allies – to prevent him from responding to popular and national wishes.

In the years that followed, foreign investment rose after being reduced for a few years. The industry was concentrated around Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. From the northeast, labor flowed to. Unemployment rose and industrial workers’ real wages fell significantly. National industrial citizenship was pushed into the background, and the government deliberately restricted the national industry in favor of foreign interests.

While Joselino Kubitschek was president (1956-60), national citizenship increasingly merged with foreign capital interests met with generous benevolence. Economic growth was unparalleled in the country’s history – with an 80% increase over 5 years. During Kubitschek, a decision was also made to move the country’s capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia. A city built from the ground 1500 km inland.

November

WHO concerns over corona increase

November 30

The World Health Organization (WHO) is sounding the alarm about the rapidly deteriorating corona situation in Brazil and Mexico, and urges both countries to take the work of preventing the spread of infection “very seriously”. Both countries have seen a sharp increase in both infections and deaths in recent weeks.

Setback for Bolsonaro’s allies in local elections

November 29

The second round of local elections confirms the setback for candidates allied with right-wing president Jair Bolsonaro, who was already seen in the first round two weeks earlier. In the elections, which are held halfway between the federal elections, things are going well for the traditional right and for the center-right parties. On the other hand, the left is also fighting headwinds: the Labor Party (PT) does not succeed in winning the mayoral election in any of the 26 state capitals. In the two largest cities, center-right candidates win: in São Paulo, Bruno Covas (who belongs to the PSDB) is re-elected, and in Rio de Janeiro, veteran Eduardo Paes (DEM), who held the post in 2009-2016, returns.

The President’s son is charged with corruption

November 4

President Jair Bolsonaro’s son Flavio is charged with corruption, the first indictment in several investigations against the president’s family. Flavio Bolsonaro is accused of fraud and money laundering and of leading a criminal company between 2007 and 2018. He is said to have robbed him of money via employees’ salaries when he was a member of the state parliament in Rio de Janeiro. Among a number of other defendants is Flavio Bolsonaro’s former driver and fixer Fabrício Queroz, who was arrested in June (see also 21 January 2019). The 39-year-old Flavio Bolsonaro was elected to the Senate in the 2018 election, when his father became president. He dismisses all allegations as “political persecution”.

Record number of fires in the Amazon and Pantanal

November 1

The number of fires in the Amazon and Pantal was higher in October than ever before, shows another alarm signal about the devastating effects of deforestation and climate change in ecosystems that are important for the entire planet. Normally, the fires decrease in October when the rainy season is on its way – but this year, according to the space authority Inpe, 17,326 burned, more than twice as many as in 2019. In Pantanal, more fires have been registered than ever before.