Uruguay. According to
Countryaah, a change in the constitution that reformed the
country's electoral system in both presidential and local
elections came into force in January.
In June, the Uruguay government received a $ 174 million
check credit from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to
meet its 1997-98 financial program.
1973 Military dictatorship
Juan María Bordaberry won the presidential election in 71
as representative of Colorados and citizenship. During his
reign, the military was given direct responsibility for the
fight against the guerrillas. It was legitimized by
Parliament with the adoption of a resolution on "internal
state of war". During 72, the military succeeded in crushing
Tupamaros following a rapid campaign and the use of
systematic torture. In June 73 Bordaberry and the military
conducted a coup d'état, the parliament was dissolved and a
civil-military government deployed.
The Uruguayan military introduced a regime based on the
National Security Doctrine that it had taught at US military
schools. In the economic sphere, the military implemented
neoliberal economic theory, which led to the concentration
of the country's wealth on the hands of few multinational
corporations and a 50% decrease in the real wage of workers
compared to the situation before 1973. At the same time,
foreign debt reached $ 5 billion. Institutions, political
parties and unions were banned, people disappeared,
torture and random arrests became commonplace. One third of
the population was directly or through family exposed to the
physical persecution of the dictatorship.
But the military did not resolve the economic crisis,
became increasingly isolated politically, and suffered a
staggering defeat in 1980 when, in a referendum, it sought
to adopt a new constitution to legitimize the dictatorship.
The constitutional proposal was rejected by an overwhelming
majority, and the generals were forced to draw up a plan for
a gradual return to democratic conditions.
In April 83, a new trade union (PIT, Plenario
Intersindical de Trabajadores) was formed, and on May 1, for
the first time in 10 years, the international fighting day
of the workers could be marked publicly - demanding the
release of the political prisoners. That same month, the
dictatorship began negotiations with the leaders of the
three political parties that the dictatorship wanted to
recognize. Left wing alliance Frente Amplio remained
excluded and its presidential candidate had been in prison
since the military coup 10 years earlier.