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Uruguay

Yearbook 1997

Uruguay. According to Countryaah, a change in the constitution that reformed the country's electoral system in both presidential and local elections came into force in January.

In June, the Uruguay government received a $ 174 million check credit from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to meet its 1997-98 financial program.

1997 Uruguay

1973 Military dictatorship

Juan María Bordaberry won the presidential election in 71 as representative of Colorados and citizenship. During his reign, the military was given direct responsibility for the fight against the guerrillas. It was legitimized by Parliament with the adoption of a resolution on "internal state of war". During 72, the military succeeded in crushing Tupamaros following a rapid campaign and the use of systematic torture. In June 73 Bordaberry and the military conducted a coup d'état, the parliament was dissolved and a civil-military government deployed.

The Uruguayan military introduced a regime based on the National Security Doctrine that it had taught at US military schools. In the economic sphere, the military implemented neoliberal economic theory, which led to the concentration of the country's wealth on the hands of few multinational corporations and a 50% decrease in the real wage of workers compared to the situation before 1973. At the same time, foreign debt reached $ 5 billion. Institutions, political parties and unions were banned, people disappeared, torture and random arrests became commonplace. One third of the population was directly or through family exposed to the physical persecution of the dictatorship.

But the military did not resolve the economic crisis, became increasingly isolated politically, and suffered a staggering defeat in 1980 when, in a referendum, it sought to adopt a new constitution to legitimize the dictatorship. The constitutional proposal was rejected by an overwhelming majority, and the generals were forced to draw up a plan for a gradual return to democratic conditions.

In April 83, a new trade union (PIT, Plenario Intersindical de Trabajadores) was formed, and on May 1, for the first time in 10 years, the international fighting day of the workers could be marked publicly - demanding the release of the political prisoners. That same month, the dictatorship began negotiations with the leaders of the three political parties that the dictatorship wanted to recognize. Left wing alliance Frente Amplio remained excluded and its presidential candidate had been in prison since the military coup 10 years earlier.

 

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