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United States

Yearbook 1997

USA. According to Countryaah, President Bill Clinton took up his second term on January 20. As new Foreign Minister, he appointed UN Ambassador Madeleine Albright and Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen. In contrast, the candidate as head of the CIA security service, Anthony Lake, was forced to step down after showing ignorance on several controversial issues. Instead, the new CIA chief became George Tenet. Clinton's candidate for new commander in chief, General Joseph Ralston, was also forced to withdraw after admitting an extramarital sexual relationship 13 years ago. The appointment became politically impossible since the female combat pilot Kelly Flinn shortly before being fired because of a love affair. New ÖB became Henry Shelton.

1997 United StatesBoth Clinton and Vice President Al Gore were persecuted by suspects of breaking the rules when they raised money for the 1996 election campaign. Clinton said, among other things. have received money in the White House and let major donors sleep over in President Lincoln's bedroom, and Gore would have used his White House service phone to call donors. It is illegal to collect campaign funds from federal premises. More troublesome, however, were the suspicions that money was being wasted in the Democratic election campaign from the Chinese state, likely to counter Taiwan's lobbying. However, no evidence of this emerged in the Senate hearings, and Justice Minister Janet Reno decided in December not to appoint a special prosecutor to investigate campaign funding.

Also troubling for Clinton was that the Supreme Court ruled that nothing prevents Paula Jones from suing the president during his term in office. Jones accused Clinton of sexual harassment, which she said occurred in 1991 while Clinton was the governor of Arkansas and she was employed by a state agency. The trial will begin in May 1998.

In May, Clinton and Republican leaders agreed that the budget balance should be achieved by 2002, which seemed possible thanks to the favorable economic situation in the country. Growth was the fastest in a decade and unemployment fell sharply to the lowest level since the early 1970s. The budget deficit fell to $ 22.6 billion, also the lowest level in 25 years and more than $ 100 billion less than projected. In July, the government was able to submit a budget containing the largest tax cuts of 16 years.

In April, the Senate ratified the chemical weapons ban treaty, since Clinton in turn reorganized several of the Republicans' disapproval of foreign government agencies, including the aid agency USAID.

By similar bargaining with issues unrelated to one another, abortion opponents in Congress in November succeeded in stopping the repayment of US debt to the UN. Against refraining from demanding an increase in federal funding for abortion aid abroad, abortion opponents halted the payment of the $ 926 million that Clinton promised the United Nations to pay and which he previously agreed with Congress. It was comforting that media magnate Ted Turner donated $ 1 billion to UN relief efforts. In December, negotiations to reduce the US contribution to the UN budget stranded from 25 to 20% over a three-year period.

In June, the tobacco industry pledged to pay $ 368.5 billion (about SEK 2,800 billion) in 25 years, mainly to cover the increased health care costs that tobacco causes to the states. In return, the industry would be guaranteed immunity from prosecution for tobacco's harmful effects. The agreement also included that the industry would work to reduce smoking among young people and that the authorities would regulate advertising and marketing. However, the settlement was postponed since Clinton demanded much tougher measures against the tobacco industry, including higher fines for manufacturers unless smoking among teenagers decreased by 60% within ten years.

In June, a Denver court sentenced Timothy McVeigh to death for the Oklahoma City blast attack in 1995, when 168 people were killed and over 500 injured. His aide Terry Nichols was later found guilty of conspiracy and causing death to another. In the US, 74 people were executed during the year, the highest figure since 1955. Half of the executions took place in Texas.

1997 United States

1776 Independence and aggressive expansion

Around 1760, there lived approx. 300,000 in the 13 English colonies on the country's east coast. It was a far higher population than the French population in the Mississippi area and the African American population of 90,000. Most of the British settlers had fled their country of origin due to poverty, religious persecution and political instability. At the end of the wars between the rival powers in Europe in 1763, France surrendered its colonies east of the Mississippi to England, but the colonies west of the river came into Spanish hands.

However, tensions between the colonies and the colonial power in England increased, and in 1775 the war of independence began. A year later, on July 4, 1776, the New State Declaration of Independence was signed. However, the war continued, but France supported the struggle for independence, the English being defeated and in 1783 had to recognize the independence. In 1787 the first constitution of the new state came into force, which came into force in 1789. The country's first president was George Washington (president 1789-96), and under him 10 additions were made to the constitution. First and foremost on individual and federal rights.

The first 100 years after independence were marked by an aggressive colonial expansion to the west and south. In 1803 Louisiana was purchased by France. In 1810-19, war was fought against Spain, in order to annex Florida. In 1836, the English-speaking population of the Mexican state of Texas rebelled against the Mexican government, founded a republic that in 1845 was incorporated in the United States. The United States declared Mexico war and conquered half of that country's territory. California was conquered in 1850 and Oregon in 1853.

1861-65 Civil War

The Civil War in the United States (1861-65) ended with the North's victory over the South and the abolition of slavery, but basically it was a battle between the two economic systems that had developed side by side: Industrial Capitalism that developed in the North had needed more labor, expanding and protecting the internal market, while slave owners in the south needed free slave labor and access to the cotton and sugar markets in Europe. By 1850 there had been 6 million residents of European descent in the south, of whom only 345,525 had slaves. Yet most defended slavery - frightened by the slave rebellions in South Carolina in 1822 and in Virginia in 1800 and 1831.

The election of Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860 triggered a crisis. Even before he was deployed to the presidential post, states in the South declared that they were leaving the Union (USA). The northern states began the civil war to defeat the south, hold on to the union and they prevailed thanks to a stronger economic base, but only after 1 million people had been killed on both sides. Slavery was abolished, capitalism spread to the whole Union, but racial discrimination consisted. At the same time, the conquest of the native peoples continued. Treaties of 1851 and 1868 recognized the Sioux people's right to its expansive lands to the west, but found of gold caused the treaties to be ignored. The conquest was completed in 1890, when the last resistance was crushed - at Wounded Knee. The indigenous population was now assembled in secluded and barren reserves that did not have any immediate economic value for Europeans.

 

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