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Ukraine

Yearbook 1997

Ukraine. According to Countryaah, President Leonid Kuchma also conducted a comprehensive government reform in 1997 and, after only one year in office, left the Prime Minister's post in favor of Valerij Pustovoitenko. The ministers for economy, agriculture, energy, coal mines and industry were replaced as these areas needed to be reformed quickly in order to curb the country's economic decline. However, the Ukrainian economy continued to collapse. Since the country became independent in 1991, the economy has deteriorated every year.

Unpaid wages and outstanding pensions led to many protest actions and demonstrations during the year. According to official statistics, during the first quarter, 54% of the population lived below the minimum. Ukraine, one of Europe's largest countries, had great difficulties in attracting foreign investors. Due to the slow pace of reform, assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank was severely limited. The World Bank withheld half of the $ 300 million promised by Ukraine in order to reform the coal mining sector. One of the few economic areas with good growth was arms exports.

With a partnership agreement, Ukraine further strengthened ties with NATO, which decided to open an office in Kiev. In May, the Russian Federation and Ukraine officially set the point for several years of insomnia. Because of the disagreement over the Black Sea Fleet, Russian President Yeltsin had on six occasions canceled his trip to Kiev. The visit was now completed and a number of agreements were signed. Yeltsin assured in Kiev that the Russian Federation did not have and never had any territorial claims on Ukraine.

According to the settlement, the Russian Federation may retain four-fifths of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and may lease Sevastopol's port facilities for at least 20 years. In return, the Russian Federation pledged to regularly write off the amortization of the Ukrainian state's multibillion debt. With the settlement of the Black Sea Fleet and Sevastopol's position, one of the longest and most serious post-Soviet conflicts was resolved. The friendship and cooperation agreement between the Russian Federation and Ukraine also meant a number of facilitations in the trade exchange.

Several notable murders occurred during the year, including on several journalists. When Ukraine joined the Council of Europe in 1995, it promised to abolish the death penalty. However, it was revealed that executions had been carried out despite the president's assurances that they had ceased. 13 people were executed during the year.

During the year, Ukraine received an EU grant of 865 million. kr. for a new concrete enclosure over the wrecked Chernobyl reactor. During the year, the G7 association decided to contribute SEK 2.4 billion. The casing that was built in a hurry after the 1986 disaster was in poor condition and the risk of leaks was assessed as imminent. The nuclear power plant is scheduled to be closed completely in 2000.

1997 Ukraine

Opposition leader Yulia Tymoshenko was sentenced in October 2011 to 7 years in prison for abusing power. the conclusion of a gas agreement with Russia in 2009. The judiciary had prepared several other cases against her, which, however, all fell apart. For a 19-day period in April-May 2012, again in October-November 12 and in November-December 13, Tymoshenko went on hunger strike in protest of her political prison sentence. The EU was divided in its condemnation of the judgment on Tymoshenko. On the one hand, the Union protested, but on the other it wanted to bring Ukraine closer. Already in 2010, President Yanukovych had stated that he did not immediately want to apply for membership with the EU, but wanted agreements on trade and visa free.

In November, Parliament adopted a new electoral system, according to which 220 of Parliament's 445 seats were to be elected in single constituencies, while the other 225 were to be elected on the basis of a proportional system. Critics pointed out that the election in single-member circles would be a big advantage for the largest parties - as in the UK whose electoral system is based solely on single-member circles.

The global economic crisis that seriously hit in 2008 hit Ukraine exceptionally hard. GDP fell by 15.1% in 2009 and inflation reached 16.4%. Exports fell 48.7%, while imports fell 53.5%. At the same time, unemployment tripled to 9% during 2009.

The October 2012 parliamentary elections returned the ruling Party of 4.4% to 30%, but due to the changed electoral system, the party lost 10 seats to 185. Tymoshenko's Fatherland Party declined 5.2% to 25.6%, but lost 55 seats and had to settle for 101. The new Liberal opposition party UDAR, led by heavyweight boxer Vitali Klitschko, stormed into parliament with 40 seats and 14% of the vote. The Communist Party advanced 5 seats to 32, and the right-wing Nationalist Svoboda Party came in at 37. In December, Yanukovych appointed Mykola Azarov for a new term as prime minister of a government of the Regions Party, the Communist Party and 10 independent MPs.

The OSCE had sent over 1,000 election observers to the country, and stated immediately after "it was a good election, not perfect but clearly acceptable.. in accordance with democratic norms". However, it subsequently added that "certain aspects of the election campaign had been a backlash over previous elections.. and that the election had been characterized by abuse of power and excessive use of money". In a joint press release on November 12, the political opposition of the Fatherland Party, Svoboda and UDAR rejected the election results and declared that they would bring it before national and international courts.

Unlike Denmark, police officers are being prosecuted for mistreating detainees. In June 2012, police officers punched a miner in Donetsk. At the end of the year, all 3 police officers were charged with mistreatment and torture by a large number of arrests dating back to 2009. In January 2012, Police Officer Serhiy Prikhodko was sentenced to 5 years' conditional prison for manslaughter, resulting in the arrest of Ihor Indylo in May 2010.

 

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