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Turkey

Yearbook 1997

1997 TurkeyTurkey. According to Countryaah, Turkey's domestic policy was marked by a government crisis during the year that ended with a disguised military coup. Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan's Islamist-dominated government made proposals for Islamist measures at the beginning of the year. The National Security Council - wholly dominated by the military - responded by giving the government a list of 20 points that must be addressed to safeguard the secular constitution. Among other things, the activities of the Muslim schools would be limited. Erbakan did not do much to meet the requirements.

At the end of May-June, the government lost the majority in parliament. The jump-offs from the government partner Right Road Party (Doğru Yol Partisi, DYP) had become too many. On June 18, Erbakan departed. President S邦leyman Demirel commissioned Mesut Yilmaz, leader of the National Party (Anavatan Partisi, ANAP), to form a government. This made Yilmaz in a coalition with a few smaller parties.

Yilmaz had been head of government for two periods before - 1991 and 1996. His first major success as prime minister this time came when Parliament, after severe military pressure, passed a law that stipulates that students must go eight years instead of five in public school before can move on to religious education. The law led to clashes between police and protesters in several parts of the country.

The Erbakan Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, RP) was prosecuted before the Constitutional Court for violating the secular principles of the Constitution. The defense pointed out that the party had not built an Islamic state on the program. The Constitutional Court judgment had not yet arrived at year-end; it would be banned, and many of its activists will be suspended from politics for five years.

In December, Turkey interrupted the political dialogue with the EU since the Union decided that Turkey, unlike ten Eastern European countries and Cyprus, should not enter into membership negotiations. The reason was the poor economy, the tense relationship with Greece and the lack of respect for human rights in the attempts to crack down on the Kurds' struggle.

During the year, as in several previous occasions, Turkey conducted several offenses against the PKK (Kurdistan Workers Party, Partya Karker谷n Kurdistan) in the zone of northern Iraq controlled by two rival Iraqi militia groups since the Kuwait War of 1990-91. The Turks were successful with the help of one of the Iraqi Kurdish groups. How many casualties the battles required was unclear as the data from both sides differed significantly. However, it involved thousands.

1997 Turkey

2010 Israel kills 9 Turkish relief workers

Pirates of the Israeli military attack in May 2010 a relief convoy in the Mediterranean on their way to Gaza, suffering from an internationally unlawful blockade by Israel. During the attack, 8 Turkish nationals and 1 with dual Turkish-North American citizenship were murdered by the Israelis. Since the convoy was attacked in international waters, it was international law a military attack by Israel on Turkey, and it sparked violent protests in Turkey. At the end of June, the Turkish foreign minister threatened to break diplomatic relations with Israel, unless Turkey apologized for the Israeli attack. It was totally rejected by Israeli fascist Foreign Minister Avigdor Liebermann. For a number of years, Israel managed to strike a wedge between the Arab world and Turkey - especially in the issue of Palestine.the rogue state.

At the beginning of September 2011, Turkey partially cut off diplomatic relations with Israel. The reason was that Israel refused to apologize for the murders of the 9 Turkish nationals in May 2010. For more than a year, there had been negotiations between the two countries to reach a wording for an Israeli apology. In vain. Israel's ambassador and 1st secretary were expelled by Turkey, and Turkey downgraded its embassy in Tel Aviv to 2nd secretary level. At the same time, Turkey declared that it would bring Israel's unlawful blockade of Gaza to the International Court of Justice in The Hague. In 2006, the Court declared Israel's apartheid wall down through the Israeli-occupied West Bank illegal. Prime Minister Erdogan at the same time stated that he planned to visit Gaza. Israel replied again, that Israel and the United States would by all means prevent a Turkish state visit to Gaza. Israel further stated that it would not apologize for its piracy in international waters as it would portray the country as a "weak nation".

In 2010, the AK government party failed to obtain a 2/3 majority in parliament for a revision of the constitution. Instead, the proposals were sent to a referendum in October 2010, where they were passed with 57.88% of the vote. The constitutional amendments meant that citizens have the right to appeal cases to the Supreme Court, the establishment of an ombudsman institution, greater gender equality, the right to negotiate nationwide professional agreements, the right of civil courts to judge military personnel, the right of public servants to go on strike, and there a constitutional court is created.

In April 2011, the Turkish Election Commission removed a number of Kurdish candidates from the list of candidates on the grounds that they had been arrested or charged with "terrorist activities". The decision triggered violent demonstrations in Turkish Kurdistan and cost more lives. Despite the institutional tensions, the Kurdish party BDP made strong progress in the Turkish elections in June. Among other things. Leyla Zana, who was politically imprisoned (1994-2004) for 10 years was elected. The BDP received 36 of the seats in the southeast of Turkey against 30 for the ruling AKP. However, 6 of the 36 candidates were in Turkish prison, and when one of them, Hatip Dicle, was deprived of his seat by the Turkish Constitutional Court, the non-jailed 30 parliamentarians initiated a boycott of the Turkish parliament. The ruling Justice Party, AKP went 3, 3% up from 46.6% to 49.9% of the vote. It was the first time in the country's history that the same party retained government power for 3 periods.

In August 2011, the entire Turkish General Staff resigned in protest against what it referred to as "political persecution". As early as February 2010, 40 senior officers had been arrested, accused of preparing a military coup. Since then, the prominent role of the military in Turkish politics has been curtailed, and this was the real reason for the resignation of the General Staff.

Also in August, the Turkish military launched a week-long bombing campaign against PKK bases in Iraqi Kurdistan. In October, the PKK responded again, killing 26 Turkish soldiers and wounding eight, with coordinated attacks. Despite the military insisting that all guidelines had been followed, in January 2012, the Turkish government chose to pay compensation to the families of those killed. 2011 ended up being the bloodiest year in 10 years.

The fighting intensified sharply in 2012 and Turkey accused Assad of Syria of arming the PKK. Assad now had plenty to do on the home front, though Turkey, in its open support for Syrian rebels, had de-facto declared Syria war. In the middle of the year, there were fierce fighting between the PKK and the military in Hakkari province. In September, Turkish general Necdet Özel stated that 110 soldiers and 475 PKK partisans had been killed since the start of the year.

 

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