Countryaah, Turkey's domestic policy was marked by a
government crisis during the year that ended with a
disguised military coup. Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan's
Islamist-dominated government made proposals for Islamist
measures at the beginning of the year. The National Security
Council - wholly dominated by the military - responded by
giving the government a list of 20 points that must be
addressed to safeguard the secular constitution. Among other
things, the activities of the Muslim schools would be
limited. Erbakan did not do much to meet the requirements.
At the end of May-June, the government lost the majority
in parliament. The jump-offs from the government partner
Right Road Party (Doğru Yol Partisi, DYP) had become too
many. On June 18, Erbakan departed. President S邦leyman
Demirel commissioned Mesut Yilmaz, leader of the National
Party (Anavatan Partisi, ANAP), to form a government. This
made Yilmaz in a coalition with a few smaller parties.
Yilmaz had been head of government for two periods before
- 1991 and 1996. His first major success as prime minister
this time came when Parliament, after severe military
pressure, passed a law that stipulates that students must go
eight years instead of five in public school before can move
on to religious education. The law led to clashes between
police and protesters in several parts of the country.
The Erbakan Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, RP) was
prosecuted before the Constitutional Court for violating the
secular principles of the Constitution. The defense pointed
out that the party had not built an Islamic state on the
program. The Constitutional Court judgment had not yet
arrived at year-end; it would be banned, and many of its
activists will be suspended from politics for five years.
In December, Turkey interrupted the political dialogue
with the EU since the Union decided that Turkey, unlike ten
Eastern European countries and Cyprus, should not enter into
membership negotiations. The reason was the poor economy,
the tense relationship with Greece and the lack of respect
for human rights in the attempts to crack down on the Kurds'
During the year, as in several previous occasions, Turkey
conducted several offenses against the PKK (Kurdistan
Workers Party, Partya Karker谷n Kurdistan) in the zone of
northern Iraq controlled by two rival Iraqi militia groups
since the Kuwait War of 1990-91. The Turks were successful
with the help of one of the Iraqi Kurdish groups. How many
casualties the battles required was unclear as the data from
both sides differed significantly. However, it involved
2010 Israel kills 9 Turkish relief workers
Pirates of the Israeli military attack in May 2010 a
relief convoy in the Mediterranean on their way to Gaza,
suffering from an internationally unlawful blockade by
Israel. During the attack, 8 Turkish nationals and 1 with
dual Turkish-North American citizenship were murdered by the
Israelis. Since the convoy was attacked in international
waters, it was international law a military attack by Israel
on Turkey, and it sparked violent protests in Turkey. At the
end of June, the Turkish foreign minister threatened to
break diplomatic relations with Israel, unless Turkey
apologized for the Israeli attack. It was totally rejected
by Israeli fascist Foreign Minister Avigdor Liebermann. For
a number of years, Israel managed to strike a wedge between
the Arab world and Turkey - especially in the issue of
Palestine.the rogue state.
At the beginning of September 2011, Turkey partially cut
off diplomatic relations with Israel. The reason was that
Israel refused to apologize for the murders of the 9 Turkish
nationals in May 2010. For more than a year, there had been
negotiations between the two countries to reach a wording
for an Israeli apology. In vain. Israel's ambassador and 1st
secretary were expelled by Turkey, and Turkey downgraded its
embassy in Tel Aviv to 2nd secretary level. At the same
time, Turkey declared that it would bring Israel's unlawful
blockade of Gaza to the International Court of Justice in
The Hague. In 2006, the Court declared Israel's apartheid
wall down through the Israeli-occupied West Bank illegal.
Prime Minister Erdogan at the same time stated that he
planned to visit Gaza. Israel replied again, that Israel and
the United States would by all means prevent a Turkish state
visit to Gaza. Israel further stated that it would not
apologize for its piracy in international waters as it would
portray the country as a "weak nation".
In 2010, the AK government party failed to obtain a 2/3
majority in parliament for a revision of the constitution.
Instead, the proposals were sent to a referendum in October
2010, where they were passed with 57.88% of the vote. The
constitutional amendments meant that citizens have the right
to appeal cases to the Supreme Court, the establishment of
an ombudsman institution, greater gender equality, the right
to negotiate nationwide professional agreements, the right
of civil courts to judge military personnel, the right of
public servants to go on strike, and there a constitutional
court is created.
In April 2011, the Turkish Election Commission removed a
number of Kurdish candidates from the list of candidates on
the grounds that they had been arrested or charged with
"terrorist activities". The decision triggered violent
demonstrations in Turkish Kurdistan and cost more lives.
Despite the institutional tensions, the Kurdish party BDP
made strong progress in the Turkish elections in June. Among
other things. Leyla Zana, who was politically imprisoned
(1994-2004) for 10 years was elected. The BDP received 36 of
the seats in the southeast of Turkey against 30 for the
ruling AKP. However, 6 of the 36 candidates were in Turkish
prison, and when one of them, Hatip Dicle, was deprived of
his seat by the Turkish Constitutional Court, the non-jailed
30 parliamentarians initiated a boycott of the Turkish
parliament. The ruling Justice Party, AKP went 3, 3% up from
46.6% to 49.9% of the vote. It was the first time in the
country's history that the same party retained government
power for 3 periods.
In August 2011, the entire Turkish General Staff resigned
in protest against what it referred to as "political
persecution". As early as February 2010, 40 senior officers
had been arrested, accused of preparing a military coup.
Since then, the prominent role of the military in Turkish
politics has been curtailed, and this was the real reason
for the resignation of the General Staff.
Also in August, the Turkish military launched a week-long
bombing campaign against PKK bases in Iraqi Kurdistan. In
October, the PKK responded again, killing 26 Turkish
soldiers and wounding eight, with coordinated attacks.
Despite the military insisting that all guidelines had been
followed, in January 2012, the Turkish government chose to
pay compensation to the families of those killed. 2011 ended
up being the bloodiest year in 10 years.
The fighting intensified sharply in 2012 and Turkey
accused Assad of Syria of arming the PKK. Assad now had
plenty to do on the home front, though Turkey, in its open
support for Syrian rebels, had de-facto declared Syria war.
In the middle of the year, there were fierce fighting
between the PKK and the military in Hakkari province. In
September, Turkish general Necdet Özel stated that 110
soldiers and 475 PKK partisans had been killed since the
start of the year.