Africa Asia Europe North America South America Oceania
You are here: Home > Africa > Tanzania

Tanzania

Yearbook 1997

Tanzania. According to Countryaah, Deputy Finance Minister Kilonzo Mporogonyi was forced to resign in February because of his involvement in a financial scandal that also forced the former finance minister to resign at the end of 1996.

The country had problems with food supply due to drought. Authorities estimated that 13 of the country's 20 regions were covered by the shortage situation.

1997 Tanzania

In the Olduvai gorge in northern Tanzania, the oldest fossil remains of our species have been found. They are millions of years old. From this time until the year 700 CE, we have only very limited knowledge of what happened on most of the African continent.

During the period 695-1550 there existed in the area a thriving Arab trade civilization that was destroyed by Portuguese invaders. Only a century and a half later, the Arabs, led by the Sultan of Oman, succeeded in expelling the Portuguese, but the rich ancient culture and trade did not return. Instead, trade in slaves intensified and Kilua and Zanzibar became the centers of this trade.

During the period 1698-1830 Zanzibar and the coastal area were ruled by a representative of the Sultan of Oman. He got his headquarters on Zanzibar, but his sons were pressured to share the inheritance, thus dividing the area into two Sultanates.

In the late 19th century, a German adventurer set up a trading company, received immediate support from the German Empire, and leased Tanganyika's coastal area by the Sultan of Zanzibar. But England had the same plans, and at the Berlin Conference where the European great powers divided Africa between them, it was therefore decided that Germany could have Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi and England Zanzibar.

The first part of the colonial period - until 1920 - was marked by great destruction, a sharp decline in the population and an economic transformation to protect German colonial interests. In 1905, the Muslims of Tanganyika revolted - the Maji-Maji revolt - but it was defeated by a joint German-British intervention force. It is estimated that about 150,000 Africans died in battle, from starvation or disease.

After Germany's defeat in World War I, the League of Nations transferred Tanganyika to the English in mandate, while Rwanda and Burundi were handed over to Belgium. The land and labor were especially used in the production of sisal, coffee and cotton, and the agricultural commodities at the end of the colonial period accounted for almost all exports. Tanzania was one of the African countries that had the least industry by its independence, and almost all finished goods had to be purchased from abroad. The local food supply was also neglected. All trading and transport companies, banks and insurance companies were controlled by foreign capital - primarily British. A large part of the retail trade was handled by the Asian minority. The class and racial differences were largely coincidental and the Africans had no political rights.

Decolonialization and neo-colonialism

The struggle for independence was led by the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), which was established in 1954 and which, compared to most other African countries, was a party with great support in the country. The party also had good relations with the trade union movement and agricultural organizations.

But even though the peasants constituted the TANU mass basis, it was the traders and petty bourgeois layers of some education that shaped the ideology and secured important positions. Herein lies some of the background to the political contradictions of the 1960s and 70s.

 

Other Countries in Africa

Arist Countries Copyright 1997 - 2020 All Rights Reserved