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Switzerland

Yearbook 1997

Switzerland. According to Countryaah, Switzerland was attracted international attention during the year as a result of partly new information about the contact with Germany during the Second World War. The co-ordination was partly about the purchase of gold from Nazi Germany, and partly about money that Jews deposited in Swiss bank accounts during the war. An American investigation estimated that Nazi Germany's theft of gold in the occupied countries totaled $ 44 billion. A Swiss report showed that 76% of the German Riksbank's gold exports during the Second World War went to Switzerland.

In July and October, Swiss banks published lists of accounts that have not been moved since 1945. On the Christmas list, there were 1,800 names of foreign nationals, and in October list 14,000 names of Swiss citizens. People who claimed to be entitled to an account could sign up to have their case tried.

In February, the Swiss government, in consultation with the country's three largest commercial banks, opened a 100 million Swiss franc fund to compensate victims of the Holocaust. A month later, President Arnold Koller announced that he also intended to set up a Solidarity Fund for the same purpose.

Three referendums were held during the year. The first lost a proposal from the Socialist Party (included in the coalition government) to ban arms exports; allows prescription of heroin to heroinists.

Switzerland, which rejected the EEA Agreement by a vast majority in 1992, has since been able to resolve its dealings with the Union only through special agreements. As the last country among the EU's neighbors, Switzerland signed a border agreement with the EU during the year. The agreement laid the groundwork for a more efficient exchange of information on issues related to smuggling, customs fraud and transit traffic.

1997 Switzerland

In the second half of the 14th century, the land oligarchy was overthrown and its lands and laws were made municipal. Of this rural, democratic movement arose Landsgemeinde or assembly of all residents - the cantonal community great instrument. A similar movement was led by the lows in the cities. From then on, the Federation embarked on the conquest of territories. Through numerous battles, during the 15th century, the Union grew into thirteen cantons, formed alliances with others, and created the first state agency: the Reichstag, with two seats and one vote per canton.

In 1516, the King of France imposed a covenant of peace on the cantons, and then an alliance in 1521, which gave him the right to recruit soldiers in Switzerland. The military and economic ties created by this alliance - which only Zurich refused to sign - were maintained until the end of the old Federation in 1798.

The Reformation came to Switzerland with the priest Ulrik Zwinglio, whose sermons against serving military service as a mercenary, against corruption and the power of clergy, aroused great audacity and strengthened the bourgeoisie in the cities.

Zwinglio's attempt to change the federal alliance for the benefit of the Reformed cities failed because of the Catholic victory of the Catholic lands. The Chapel's Second National Peace, signed in 1531, therefore provided benefits to the Catholic minority over the Protestant majority.

The areas that the two faiths shared about experienced constant tensions, but both camps were forced to cooperate and in this way preserved the unity of the Federation. While the agricultural sector dominated in the Catholic areas, trade and industry flourished in the Protestant, with the help of French, Italian and Dutch refugees.

Real estate, commerce and industry, along with the recruitment of rental troops, provided great wealth and power to a small core of families - especially in cities - while leaving many small farmers without rights, forced to cultivate mediocre lands, or to work as farm workers.

The popular consultations disappeared in the 17th century. The city's tax collection caused riots, such as the great peasant uprising in 1653, which was severely destroyed, but three years after the war broke out again and the privileges of the Catholic cantons were restored.

While the European conflicts were on in the 17-18. century, the faithful division and mercenary creature played a crucial role in maintaining Switzerland's neutrality, which gradually became a condition of existence for the Federation. The policy of armed neutrality - which has existed until today - was formulated for the first time by the Reichstag in 1674.

 

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