Spain. At the beginning of the year, Spain made a renewed
request for a sovereignty shared with Britain over
Gibraltar. The propane was rejected by the then British
government, which is why the Spaniards returned with the
same proposal to the Blair government at the end of the
At the Spanish Socialist Party's (PSOE) congress in June,
party leader Felipe González announced unexpectedly that he
would step down. According to
Countryaah, the 55-year-old González had been the
party's leader since 1977. As a new leader, Congress elected
the former minister and the party's group leader in
parliament, 49-year-old Joaquín Almunia. Later in the year,
González was called to the Supreme Court to answer questions
about a suspected illegal financial aid to the PSOE 1987-91.
González denied all knowledge of such support, but the court
found it plagued and could link it to two party officials
within the PSOE who were sentenced to three and eight years
in prison respectively.
In April, the Spanish minority government under José
María Aznar received support from virtually all the parties
to the economic stabilization plan for the years 1997-2000
presented to Parliament.
The Basque terrorist organization ETA (Euskadi ta
Askatasuna) continued its struggle for imprisoned ETAs to
serve their sentences in Basque prisons. The main means of
fighting was the use of kidnappings and murders. In July,
ETA murdered local Basque politician Miguel Angel Blanco,
leading to widespread protests, both peaceful and armed,
across Spain. Blanco's funeral was attended by both the
Spanish Crown Prince and the Prime Minister, and King Juan
Carlos delivered a speech to the nation on television that
ETA continued its terrorist activities during the fall.
The government responded with even more intense opposition
than before. At the end of November, ETA announced that it
would change tactics by suspending all violent attacks, but
for that reason did not give up the requirement that ETA
prisoners be moved to Basque prisons. The new attitude at
ETA coincided with the Supreme Court sentencing 23 members
of ETA's political branch Herri Batasuna to each of seven
years' imprisonment for spreading ETA propaganda and thus
"defending terrorism". This caused ETA to resume its
terrorist activities, and in December politician José Luis
Caso became ETA's 13 murder victims for the year. At the end
of the year, the government decided to relocate 15 ETA
members to prisons located closer to the Basque Country.
Madrid, the capital of Spain; 3.3 million residents (2011). The city is
located in the region of the same name approximately in the middle of the
Iberian Peninsula. In the region (8028 km2, 6.5 million in 2011),
mainly citrus fruits, olives and cereals are grown; there is also sheep, goat
and bull breeding.
The climate is heavily influenced by the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range
towards NV; the winds from the mountains in winter and from the south in summer
create a very varied climate that is dry year-round with cold winters and
extremely hot summers. To the south, the region is bordered by the high plain of
New Castile La Meseta.
Madrid city is divided into 21 neighborhoods. It is centrally located in
Spain on a plateau for approximately The altitude of 667 m is a series of
low-corrugated sandy slopes down towards the almost dry river of Manzanares in
the summer, a tributary to Jarama, which in turn connects to the Tajo. The
plateau is intersected by numerous lavas, arrollos, original rains of rains with
outflows into the river. The largest of these is the promenade Paseo de la
Castellana, which continues in Paseo de Recoletos and Paseo del Prado, through
which the rainwater is channeled to Arroyo de Atocha.
Madrid misses because of its location on the Spanish high plain natural
conditions for an expansive development. The increase is first and foremost
based on Spain's centralist state policy, which has helped to make Madrid the
largest city of the Iberian Peninsula. In most areas it is the center of Spain
with one of the richest industrial areas in the country.
The city's rich cultural life, with art museums and theaters, not least adds
to the considerable tourism. The leading university is the Universidad
Complutense de Madrid (founded 1508 in Alcalá de Henares and moved to Madrid in
1836), which until the early 1900's. was the only university in Spain that could
grant a doctorate.
For the Madrils, the city's sporting pride is the football clubs Club
Atlético de Madrid and Real Madrid CF; especially the latter has proud
traditions in European club football at the famous home ground, Bernabeu, with
seating for 110,000 spectators.
Business and communication
Madrid is strongly influenced by the functions naturally associated with the
country's capital, including public administration, education, scientific and
cultural institutions, banking, insurance and publishing; three of Spain's
largest banks, including Danmarks Nationalbank, are headquartered here, and
approximately For example, 80% of all publishing production is distributed between
Barcelona and Madrid.
The city's older industries, which are linked to the aerospace and automotive
industries, dominate together with new high-tech companies in electronics,
plastics, rubber and food production. In Madrid, optical instruments, electrical
articles (hardware, telecommunications), furniture, machinery (including
agricultural machinery), glass, paper (books), pharmaceuticals and consumer
goods. The construction industry has good conditions in Madrid, such as is the
seat of Europe's largest construction company. Furthermore, tourism is a major
part of the city's revenue.
As in other major cities, the existing business structure of SMEs is
complemented by major Spanish and international groups. The major industrial
areas are located in the southern and eastern parts, among others. the Spanish
film and television industry.
Madrid's transport network has been developed in line with the growth of
business. The road network and in particular the railway have made the city a
traffic hub for all of Spain. Car traffic is directed around the city center via
a ring of highways. As in other major cities, the city's road network is
congested and there are air and noise nuisances. The international airport is
located 16 km east of the center of Barajas and has more than 40 million
Public transport is well functioning with one of the world's most developed
subway systems and a network of bus routes. Madrid today has high speed
connections to Seville, Catalonia and Barcelona. The goal is for these trains to
carry passengers to and from all major cities in Spain in 2010 in less than four
hours. On 11 March 2006, regional trains were subjected to terrorist attacks in
which 201 people were killed.