Rwanda. In courts around the country, lawsuits against
people accused of participating in the 1994 genocide were
initiated. In many cases, the defendants did not have access
to defenders and usually the judges were notified after
summary deliberations. From the turn of the year until the
middle of May, some 40 people were sentenced to death. Among
them was Froduald Karamira, one of the leaders of the
In the UN Criminal Tribunal established in Arusha,
Tanzania, the work was slower. According to
Countryaah, harsh criticism was directed
at severe misconduct within the tribunal, including neglect,
nepotism and bureaucracy. Personnel speaking to the press
risked punishment, telephone calls were intercepted and
letters were read by unauthorized persons. The tribunal's
ability to protect the witness's security was also
questioned. The tribunal's two highest officials were
The UN tribunal was created to investigate the supreme
leaders of the genocide. Among the seven people arrested in
Kenya in July and extradited to Arusha were among others.
Jean Kambanda, prime minister of the Hutu interim government
at the time of the April-July 1994 massacres, Hassan Ngeze,
editor of a newspaper called Genocide, and Gratien Kabiligi,
head of the Army intelligence service, during the genocide.
Struggles between the Tutsi-dominated new army and hutumilis
as well as the remains of the old hutu army continued
throughout the year, mainly in the country's northwestern
parts. During the late autumn, the situation intensified.
Hutumilis' raids against prisons released hundreds of
suspected war criminals, while hundreds of people were
The Democratic Republic of Congo in 2012 and 13 accused
Rwanda of supporting the new rebel movement M23. It was
rejected by Rwanda. Several European countries suspended aid
to the country during the period because of the accusations.
The M23 was defeated in December 2013. In 2013-14, Rwanda
had a seat on the UN Security Council.
The RPF won the parliamentary elections in September
2013, with the party gaining 76% of the vote. The other
parties taking part in the elections largely supported the
government's policy. The real opposition was imprisoned, or
had failed to get his parties registered for the election.
Tourism was growing rapidly. By the end of 2013, 864,000
tourists had visited the country that year. An increase of
70% compared to 2010. The reason was that Rwanda was a
fairly safe country and that it is one of only two places in
the world where it is possible to observe mountain gorillas
In July 2014, President Anastase Murekezi appointed new
In November, hundreds of Rwandans protested against the
broadcast of a BBC documentary on the Rwanda genocide on the
occasion of the 20th anniversary of this. The survivors
accused the BBC of distorting the story and denying the
A UN report from January 2015 confirmed that during 2013,
leaders of Rwanda's rebel movement, the Forces Democratiques
de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), met several times with their
European supporters in Tanzania. At the same time, SADC with
Jacob Zuma at the head and the UN put pressure on the rebel
group to have it disarmed in the Congo.
Also in January, two former police officers were
sentenced to 20 years in prison in the Rubavu High Court for
the 2013 murder of Transparency International's Rubavu
coordinator, Gustave Makonene. The country thus marked that,
in contrast to e.g. Denmark does not allow police officers
to commit murder without penalty.
In May 2015, the BBC's Kinyarwanda service was suspended
indefinitely by Rwanda's Radio Authority. The audit followed
the recommendation an investigative committee headed by
former Attorney General Martin Ngoga had come up with. The
BBC station had originally been suspended in October 2014 in
response to the documentary broadcast Rwanda's Untold Story.
The rationale was that the broadcast violated Rwanda's laws
on denial of genocide (in 1994), call for hatred and