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Russia

Yearbook 1997

Russian Federation. According to Countryaah, President Boris Yeltsin's faltering health once again brought concern to Russian politics. The Russian head of state started as well as ended the year with poor health and in between long periods of rest, reduced programs and increasingly more convalescent and rest homes instead of the Kremlin as a political base. The constitution foresees a situation where the president should be able to be dismissed if he is unable to work. A procedure for how this should be accomplished is under preparation.

1997 RussiaYeltsin showed clear tests of nepotism during the year. His daughter Tatyana Djatjenko was appointed official adviser. She, like the press spokesmen, had to devote much energy to correcting, explaining and dismissing many of the president's statements.

During the year, the Russian head of state dismissed several ministers and employees, including Defense Minister Igor Rodionov and Chief of Staff Viktor Samsonov. Yeltsin declared himself not only "dissatisfied, but also upset" that Rodionov failed to reform the armed forces. Six months later, Admiral Felix Gromov, head of the Russian navy, was also dismissed. Finance Minister Anatoly Chubajs was forced to leave the post of finance minister after an excessive advance payment for a book, but Yeltsin let Chubajs retain the post of first deputy prime minister. The financier Boris Berezovsky was forced to leave the post of secretary of the important Russian Security Council. The privatization minister Alfred Koch was also dismissed.

The financial position of the Russian Federation had become more stable, although the International Monetary Fund (IMF) stressed that tax collection needs to be improved. However, the IMF commended the Russian Federation's economic progress in general. During the year, reforms were started to rationalize the bureaucratic tax system.

In politics, the power measurement between the government and the communist-led state duma continued. Threats of distrust vote, the government managed to ward off. During the year, the Russian Parliament passed a controversial law on religious practice. The law was condemned by Catholics and Protestants as discriminatory. No religions that have been in the Russian Federation for less than 15 years may distribute religious material, own prints, etc.

During the autumn elections were held for the regional parliaments. A couple of trends were clear. Vladimir Zhirinovsky's ultra-nationalist party LDPR got fewer votes, while the Liberal parties of Russia's democratic elections, Jabloko and Our home is Russia got more votes.

Yeltsin spoke on several occasions about the need for a "multipolar world", which should be understood as not allowing the United States to have a monopoly on superpower status. The Russian Federation's new foreign policy aims to encourage a world with several centers of power, where the Russian Federation should be one.

During the year, the Russian Federation began to improve contacts with its neighbors. The many-delayed state visit to Ukraine was carried out and the controversial Crimean issue got its solution. China and Japan received special diplomatic attention and some old disputes were resolved. With Belarus, a union agreement was signed and with Lithuania a border agreement. President Yeltsin also visited Sweden, the first Russian state visit since 1909, when Tsar Nicholas II visited our country.

The new interest in neighboring countries can also be seen in the perspective of NATO's enlargement. Moscow recognized that NATO's deployment is a process that cannot be hindered. When NATO invited Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary as new members after the Madrid Summit, the Russian Federation's Deputy Foreign Minister Alexander Avdejev labeled NATO enlargement as "the biggest mistake of world politics since the Second World War". But that view was not alone. The Russian Federation's historic cooperation agreement with NATO can be seen as an expression of the Russian Federation not being isolated in the new European defense and security policy.

1997 Russia

Napoleon

Alexandr had sought peace, but in 1805 Napoleon declared war on Russia and prevailed at Austerlitz. In 1812, Napoleon's troops invaded Russia. The "Patriotic War" in which the peasants also led guerrilla fighting against the invaders ended with Russian victory under Marshal Kutuzov. The victory made with a Russia the continent's strongest power.

Following the death of Alexandr I in December 1825, a group of aristocrats - hereafter called the Decembrists - conducted a failed coup in St. Petersburg. While the revolutions shook Europe in 1848, Russia escaped under Tsar Nikolai I unscathed through the crisis and deployed the army to crush the Hungarians in Transylvania. Yet, the Russian defeat in the Crimean War (1853-56) revealed the empire's backwardness.

In 1861, czar Alexandr II abolished the property and declared it better to abolish it from above than the peasants did it from below. However, the peasants had to pay huge damages to their former owners to win their freedom. At the same time, the Czar introduced a system of local elected assemblies to administer at the district and provincial levels. The peasants were represented, but their conditions were considerably worse than those of the great landlords.

The actions of the Narodniks

In the 1860s and 70s, a number of radical groups emerged, the goals of which ranged from the desire to form a constitutional assembly to calls for popular uprisings. The socialist ideas had great influence among students and intellectuals who saw in the peasantry a revolutionary class. In 1861-62 a number of revolutionary groups formed in Skt. Petersburg the secret association Earth and Freedom that existed until 1864. A Polish uprising in 1863 and a failed attack on the Czar in 1866 merely reinforced the repression.

The intellectuals reached the conviction that they had to join forces with the people to explain to them who their enemies were, but they were not understood. In 1876 the secret association Earth and Freedom was again created, which three years later split into three wings. One found the greatest revolutionary potential among the emerging proletariat in the cities. The second found the same potential of the peasants and the third advocated the implementation of terrorist actions to promote the process. The latter formed the Will of the People, who in 1881 murdered Czar Alexandr II. Its main leaders were subsequently hanged. The new czar Alexandr III rushed to repeal his predecessor's reforms and strengthen the monarchy.

Bolsheviks and Mensheviks

In the early 20th century, two strong currents existed within Russian socialism. The Social Revolutionaries (SR) advocated the socialization of the land in peasant societies. The Social Democracy founded by Georgia Plekhanov wanted to base socialism on the industrialization and development of the working class. But within the Social Democracy there were also two very different currents. The Bolsheviks led by lawyer Vladimir Ilich - better known by the cover name Lenin - advocated for labor uprising, while the Mensheviks, like the other social democratic parties in Europe, confessed to thedemocratic socialism based on continued capitalist development.

The 1905 Revolutions

Russian expansion in eastern Asia led to war with Japan in 1904. The war led to a series of defeats that triggered great internal distress. In 1905, a demonstration was violently attacked by the security forces, triggering a riot in both Skt. Petersburg and Moscow. The rebellion was first stopped by the October 17 manifesto, in which the Czar promised to convene a national parliament - the Duma. The Bolsheviks boycotted the subsequent election. It was the moderately liberal Constitutional Democrats who got the majority in the first Duma. (See Russian Revolution 1905).

The Duma demanded land reform, ligated among the various regions, amnesty for political prisoners and self-government for Poland. Claims that were all rejected by the Czar. The Duma was dissolved and the regime crushed the revolution in blood. In 1907 the second Duma was elected - this time with social democratic participation. Both the left wing and the right wing had been strengthened. The main problem remained the ground. Prime Minister Stolypin advocated land reform to create a class of self-sufficient peasants and to abolish the common land, but he failed and was assassinated. The other Duma was also dissolved. The regime implemented an electoral reform that gave the subsequent Duma a conservative majority.

Russia's entry into World War I intensified the crisis of the outdated feudal regime. The defeat of the war and the lack of food reinforced the popular dissatisfaction. In January 1917, a council (Soviet) elected among workers and soldiers formed government together with the Duma. In February, Tsar Nicholas II resigned, the Duma inaugurated a new provisional government and the number of Soviets increased dramatically. The Republic was a reality.

In the hope of destabilizing Russia, Germany allowed a group of Bolsheviks with Lenin at the head to pass through the country heading for Skt. Petersburg. They returned to Russia in a sealed wagon. They quickly gained influence in the Soviets, and eventually a double power situation was created between them and the government led by the Social Revolutionary Alexandr Kerensky.

The 1917 Revolutions

The decision to continue the war and the ever-deeper distress that the population had thrown out caused the Provisional Government to eventually lose all credibility. The Bolsheviks launched the slogans "Peace, bread and earth", "All power to the Soviets" and encouraged "to turn the world war into civil war". On October 25 (November 7, according to the calendar of our day), Lenin led the popular uprising that brought down the Provisional Government and created the world's first socialist republic. The Russian Revolution had begun. Elections were held for a constitutional assembly where the social revolutionaries ended up gaining a majority, and the Bolsheviks therefore decided in January 1918 to dissolve the assembly.

The Soviet government - the People's Commissioners - approved the Brest-Litovsk peace agreement with Germany "without annexes and without compensation", the abolition of private ownership of land and its transfer to the peasants, the nationalization of the banks, the control of factories, the formation of a militia and of revolutionary tribunals, the abolition of class privileges and inheritance, the separation of church and state, and the equality of men and women.

Faced with Russia's unilateral peace treaty with Germany, France and England sent the expeditionary forces into the country for the purpose. to overthrow the revolutionary government and to support the white army - groups of the military forces of the crashed regime. The foreign intervention was finally defeated in 1920, and two years later the Civil War ended with the victory of the Red Army under the leadership of landlord son Lev Trotsky. In those years, the Soviet government had introduced " war communism, " which meant maximum centralization of power and an almost complete abolition of monetary relations.

 

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