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Peru

Yearbook 1997

Peru. After 126 days, on April 22, the hostage taken by the Tupac Amarú guerrilla (MRTA) at the Japanese Embassy in Lima in December 1996 was released. All guerrillas who held hostages, including their leader Néstor Cerpa Cartolini, were killed at the exemption. According to Countryaah, the longest hostage drama in Latin America's history was over. President Alberto Fujimori, who assumed full responsibility for the exemption campaign, could look forward to the presidential election in 2000 immediately after the resolution was resolved.

In June, Fujimori had lost most of the popularity he had enjoyed two months earlier. Several opinion polls supported him in only a quarter of the respondents. The main reason for the president's declining popularity was the congressional decision to dismiss three judges in the Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional, TC) who had voted against Fujimori to stand for re-election a third time. The TC affair led to a large number of demonstrations around P. It also brought the opposition together inside and outside the congress.

The negative attitude towards Fujimori increased at the end of July when copies of his birth certificate were published. Of them, it emerged that he was not born in Peru, which is a requirement for being elected president of the country, but in Japan. The protests in connection with these revelations led to the resignation of several ministers. At two subsequent government reforms, the military strengthened its position within the Peruvian government.

1997 Peru

Guerrilla in the 60's

In the 1960's, as in a number of other Latin American countries, there were active guerrilla movements in the country. A group that broke out of the APRA formed the MIR (Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria, the revolutionary left movement), which began armed struggle under the leadership of Luis de la Puente and Guillermo Lobatón. Another group affiliated with the Communist Party organized the ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional, National Liberation Army) led by Héctor Béjar. Both of these guerrilla movements were already crushed militarily by the mid-1960's. Likewise, peasant leader Hugo Blanco's peaceful attempt to organize the rural population of the Concepció Valley was struck down by force of arms. Both Béjar and Blanco were set free by the military regime that took power in 1968. Blanco stood in critical opposition to the regime and was later imprisoned and expelled from the country, while Béjar and the Communist Party advocated support for the military regime.

The military coup in 1968

The military junta, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, who came to power in the coup in 1968, separated himself from the other military dictatorships in Latin America. The new powers largely saw the country's problems as the results of outdated social, economic and political structures. Their political program was a third way of reform, which was neither socialism nor capitalism - as officially formulated.

This Peruvian "nasserism" placed Peru in the forefront as a voice of the Third World - not least in the negotiations for a new economic world order in the 1970's. In practice, the reforms involved a far-reaching nationalization of several areas of the economy: the fishing fleet and processing companies were either nationalized or bought up by the state. The same thing happened with several oil and mining companies, and a large-scale land reform was initiated. The military regime started new mass organizations to mobilize the population for its "anti-capitalist" policy.

In 1975, a palace revolution took place in which Velasco was removed by his colleagues and replaced by General Morales Bermudez. Thus began what was called the "second phase of the Peruvian revolution": the restrictions on private capital were reduced or completely removed, Velasco's mass organizations were stretched, and planning for transition to civilian government was initiated.

The large-scale land reform was implemented without the participation or mobilization of farmers and farm workers, and it appeared that the efforts to form juntatro mass organizations were stranded on the mass support of APRA and other groups. The replacement of Velasco with Morales also led to the sale of large portions of the fishing fleet and industry - which had been nationalized in 1973 - to private interests.

 

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