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Pakistan

Yearbook 1997

1997 PakistanPakistan. In the February election, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's branch of the Pakistan Muslim League, Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), received 134 of the 204 seats in the National Assembly. The vast majority gave Sharif the opportunity to abolish a constitutional amendment that gave the president the right to dismiss the government and dissolve parliament. Sharif also passed a constitutional amendment on mandatory party loyalty in Parliament. The law was intended to put an end to voting but was criticized for stifling independent thinking.

According to Countryaah, Pakistan People's Party, Pakistan People's Party (PPP), led by former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, got just 18 seats in the National Assembly. The setbacks continued when Swiss bank accounts belonging to the Bhutto family were blocked at the request of the new government. The accounts were believed to contain about SEK 100 million. Bhutto's husband Asif Ali Zardari and 18 others were brought to justice, charged with the murder of Bhutto's brother Murtaza in 1996; the brother was a political opponent of Benazir Bhutto.

Riots between Sunni and Shiite groups in Punjab demanded more than 150 lives. The government's response to the violence became an anti-terrorist law that gives the police great powers.

Government debt rose to more than SEK 200 billion and in October corresponded to 89.5% of GDP. At the same time, the growth rate slowed. The rupee lost value by about 13% during the year.

In the fall, a political crisis came in the autumn, triggered by the Supreme Court's (HD) decision to annul the government's constitutional changes and prosecution against Sharif for derogatory statements about the court. For two months there was a power struggle between the Prime Minister, the President and the HD Chairman, which ended with the resignation of President Farooq Ahmed Leghari in December and the HD chairman being dismissed by his own judges. The struggle was considered to have caused great damage to the democratic institutions and reduced the world's confidence in the country. Senator Muhammad Rafiq Tarar of PML-N was elected as the new president on the last day of the year.

1997 Pakistan

1977 The Zia ul-Haq dictatorship

In light of the rising unrest, the military with Zia ul-Haq at the head of July 1977 took over for the third time power and introduced a state of emergency. Bhutto was thrown in jail and later on trial charged with murder of one of the opposition leaders and sentenced to death. The verdict was upheld by the Supreme Court in 78 and in 79 he was killed. General Zia ul-Haq had thus removed the greatest political threat to his dictatorship.

Zia accelerated Islamization in all parts of political and social life. Many members of the opposition were persecuted and detained. In February 85 elections were held. The state of emergency was still in force and no political parties were allowed to participate. A government was formed to support the Zia dictatorship. This one died even in an unresolved plane crash in August 88. Three months later, elections won by the PPP under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto - the daughter of the deceased president - were held. After 11 years of dictatorship, Pakistan returned to democracy.

1988 Return to democracy

Bhutto was the first woman to lead a predominantly Muslim country. One of her first actions was to provide amnesty to all female prisoners - except those convicted of murder. Many of these were condemned by the reactionary laws that were passed under the dictatorship. held that a man's testimony should be given more weight than a woman's. Zia has implemented numerous laws as additions to the Constitution. To have them removed, it required a two-thirds majority, which was really not possible.

In Pakistan, the army has traditionally had great power. The country was incorporated in 1954 in SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization) and in 55 in CENTO (Central Treaty Organization). Both strong military alliances formed and led by the United States. Although the country later withdrew from the alliances, close military and political ties with the United States were maintained.

The difficult relationship with the neighbors

Relations with India have traditionally been tense. Both countries claim the state of Kashmir. India views it as an integral part of the country, while Pakistan has repeatedly called for a referendum on its future among the state's inhabitants. The two countries have been at war with each other in 1948, 1965 and 1971. Following the recent war, the two countries agreed to create a demilitarized zone on both sides of borders dividing Kashmir. However, the division also involved a division of the population. Since then, nationalist groups from Kashmir have demanded the establishment of an independent state in the area.

Pakistan strongly condemned the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, launched in December 79. In the mid-90s, around 3 million Afghan refugees lived in Pakistan, who, with the assistance of the CIA, supported the Mujahidins - Afghan oppositionists - in their fight against the prosperous regime in Kabul. During the 11 years of Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, the United States from Pakistani territory provided the resistance movement in Afghanistan. The US loss of Iran as a strategic ally in 79 and Pakistan's strategic position against Afghanistan and the Soviet caused Pakistan to assume a strategic role as US allies in the region, and in addition to military assistance, it also provided extensive financial assistance to the country.

On August 6, 90, President Ghulam Ishaq Khan deposed Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto on charges of nepotism and corruption. He dissolved the National Assembly and appointed opposition leader Ghulam Mustafá Jatoi to head a temporary government. On October 24, new elections were held, and as a result, Nawaz Sharif was elected new Prime Minister with support from the Muslim League - the most important party in the coalition facing Bhutto. The PPP and Benazir Bhutto characterized the election as characterized by widespread scams and launched an intense opposition campaign.

When the Gulf conflict erupted after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 90, Pakistan allied with the United States and sent troops to Saudi Arabia. But polls in Pakistan revealed widespread sympathy for Iraq in the population, and the government was therefore forced to declare that the troops would not be sent to fight Iraq but only in defense of the Islamic shrines.

 

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