Norway. The year was marked by the Storting election,
which took place in October. Prime Minister Jagland, who in
an effort to secure votes declared that his government would
not remain if the Labor Party received less than 36.9% of
the vote (the 1993 election results), had to take the
consequences of its ultimatum and resign when his party only
got 35.1%. The country's second largest party after the
election was Carl I. Hagens Progress Party with 15.3%. A
minority coalition built by the central parties Christian
People's Party (13.7%), the Center Party (8.0%) and the
Liberal Liberal Party (4.4%) took over government power.
Countryaah, the new government, which together has only 42 of the
Parliament's 165 seats, was characterized by strong
opposition to the EU, a willingness to use more of the oil
income directly and a high female representation. Kjell
Magne Bondevik from the Christian People's Party became new
The Social Democratic government resigned after pushing
through the 1998 budget, leaving behind a very strong
economy based on increased oil revenues. Unemployment fell
during the year to just under 3%.
The new government inherited an environmental scandal
reminiscent of it at Hallandsåsen. At a tunnel construction
in Oslo, the same toxic sealant (Rhoca-Gil) had been used.
The tunnel leaked heavily, causing lakes in the area to dry
A growing irritation between the Norway and the United States
came today in connection with the payment of the
modernization of Norwegian fighter aircraft carried out by a
US company. Norwegian audit authorities were denied
transparency in the contracts, worth NOK 2.7 billion, at the
same time as an American report showed irregularities in
accounting and invoicing.
Relations with Iceland also became frosty during the
summer, when the Norwegian authorities fined an Icelandic
trawler and its captain for fishing off the Norwegian coast
without properly communicating the authorities.
The earliest traces of people in Norway date from 9-7.
millennium BCE It is believed that Germanic tribes emigrated
to these areas as glaciers retreated from coasts and
mountains in Northern Europe. There are cave paintings that
show that the people at that time could sail and use skis to
transport themselves over the snow.
The written history places the creation of the Norwegian
nation and the Christianity of the country for the period
800-1030 AD Viking King Harald Hårfager is considered the
founder of the nation. A task he embarked on after crushing
his rivals in a sea battle in Hafrsfjord near the present
Stavanger. He thus got most of the land under his control.
The Vikings expeditions expanded the country's dominions.
The Vikings reached as far away as Greenland in the north
and Ireland in the south. According to official history, the
Norwegian left Leif Erikson and his men in 1002 left Iceland
and went west. They were the first Europeans to cross the
Atlantic and reach America, which they called Vinland.
At the end of the Viking Age, Norway was an independent
country, where 4 regional peasant assemblies - laying
- elected the monarch. On this lay, both the king's "real"
and "illegitimate" children had equal rights in terms of
succession. In it 11-12. century it happened frequently that
two kings ruled the country at the same time - without
King Magnus III Barefoot (1093-1103) conquered the
Scottish islands of the Orkneys and Hebrides. His three
children reigned jointly, instituted the payment of the
tithe tax, founded the first monasteries, and built
cathedrals. The increasing power and conflict between the
monarchy and the church at the beginning of the 12th century
led to a civil war that lasted for 100 years. The war
continued until the coronation of Haakon IV in 1217. The new
king reorganized the administration and introduced
succession monarchy. He made an agreement with Russia on the
border in the north between the two countries. Greenland and
Iceland agreed to enter into a personal union with the King,
and with the Faroe Islands and the Scottish Isles now gained
the largest extent of the Norwegian Empire.
In 1349-50, the black plague cost half the population
life. The upper class was greatly reduced and it had to pick
up Danes and Swedes to fill higher positions within the
government and the church. Yet, the kingdom lost control of
its colonies, and the isolated areas formed their own
independent administrations. When Margrethe I of Denmark was
inaugurated as queen in 1387, the foundation of a union
between the Scandinavian countries was created. In 1389 she
was crowned queen of Sweden and in 1397 her adopted nephew
in Kalmar was elected king of all of Scandinavia. With the
Kalmar Union, Norway gradually became subordinate and
eventually transformed into a Danish province.
From 1523, the Norwegian administration sought to gain
greater independence from Denmark, but the dominance of the
Catholic bishops made it difficult for Sweden to support.
After a civil war in 1533-36, the council was abolished. In
1537 the Danish king introduced the Lutheran religion into
the country, and from that point on the Norwegian church was
state. In this era, social conditions in Norway were more
favorable than in Denmark. There was a rich landlord class
utilizing the country's tree resources and an extensive land
proletariat. However, the majority of the population
consisted of farmers and fishermen. The cities had less than
15,000 residents. (See Dancing Time).
Local government in Norway
Local government in Norway includes all political and
administrative bodies that are subject to municipalities or
For the municipalities, this applies, among other things,
to the maintenance of the primary school, the elderly care,
the primary health service (the GP) - as well as a wide
range of technical tasks such as renovation, water supply
and sewerage, construction and maintenance of roads.
For the county municipality, the most comprehensive
administrative task is related to higher education, but the
county municipality is also responsible for adult education.
Other important tasks for the county municipality are the
dental health service and the construction and maintenance
of parts of the country's road network (county roads).
The authority municipalities and county municipalities
have to take care of these administrative tasks is regulated
by the Municipal Act of 1992. The law first and foremost
specifies how the political and administrative work must be
taken care of and organized in each municipality and county
municipality. However, what specific actions the
municipalities must take care of are not determined in this
Ever since the municipal management system was
established through the Presidency Acts of 1837, the main
principle has been a negative delimitation of the
municipalities and counties' business areas. In practice,
this means that the municipalities are free to take on any
task that is not required by law to be managed by other
Today, this principle has been undermined to a certain
extent by a large number of state laws that impose
responsibility on municipalities and counties for the
fulfillment of a wide range of tasks - mainly tasks related
to the provision of various welfare services to the
population. In this sense, local government is extending the
welfare state's extended arm to service users, which also
means that the task solutions have become increasingly
standardized across municipal boundaries. At the same time,
it is recognized that there is a need to adapt the service
provision to local conditions, which is primarily only
possible to realize through bodies that have a certain
degree of independent decision-making authority.
Although the municipalities and counties have been able
to enjoy a considerable freedom - in principle - throughout
the years to make independent choices as to what tasks they
should perform and the way in which these tasks should be
carried out - the municipal government has not had any
constitutional status. It was only in 2016 that the
Constitution Section 49 received the following addition:
"Citizens have the right to manage local affairs through
local elected bodies". In principle, this draft law gives
greater political and administrative independence to
municipalities and county municipalities, while not
depriving the state of the opportunity to delegate new tasks
to the municipalities or limit the authority of the
municipalities through changing the responsibility for the
management of certain tasks. An example of the latter
happened when the county municipalities were deprived of
responsibility for the establishment and operation of public
hospitals in Norway in 2002. At that time, a new level of
administration was established for the hospitals - the
regional health authorities.
In the 2000s, there has been a continuous debate about
the municipal structure and the future of the county
municipality. With regard to the municipality structure
itself, the Storting in 2017 made a decision with the fewest
possible majority that reduced the number of municipalities
from 426 to 358. This is the lowest number of municipalities
Norway has had since the municipal autonomy was introduced.
In practice, the new municipal structure will not fully
function until after the municipal elections in 2019.
When it comes to county reform, it is still unclear what
the end result will be. Finnmark's opposition to the
decision to merge with Troms has also opened up a new debate
about other county mergers - and where opposition to this
reform has increased especially in Viken. In September,
however, the government stated that the original decision on
the regional division from 2017 was firm.
In addition to these municipal and county municipal
administrative units, the state has also established a
number of local government administration and service units.
In total, Norway has about 40 different state regional
management systems - everything from local NAV offices,
police districts to health business regions.