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Mexico

Yearbook 1997

1997 MexicoMexico. Three major events marked the year in Mexico: the fight against drug traffic, the general election and President Clinton's visit. It may also be added that the country largely succeeded in recovering financially after the crash of the Mexican peasant 1994-95.

The election to Congress in July was a major defeat for the ruling PRI, Partido Revolucionario Institucional, which lost for the first time the absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies, Mexico's lower house. PRI received a total of 38.5% of the vote and 239 seats in the House. In second place came the PRD, Partido de la Revolución Democrática, (25.8% and 125 seats) and in the third PAN, Partido Acción Nacional, (26.9% and 122 seats). In August, four opposition parties merged into an alliance, "a democratic government agreement", with a total of 261 seats. When the congress opened on September 1, it was for the first time in modern Mexican history with PRI in the minority. The party also lost the mayor's post in Mexico City, which was now first elected by the people.

In February, the head of the Mexican Drug Board, General Jesús Gutiérrez Rebollo, was arrested. He was suspected of obeying drug king Amado Carillo Fuentes. According to Countryaah, the arrest also led to the dismissal of 36 drug board officials.

Three years in advance, Mexico repaid the last of the $ 20 billion loan it received from the United States during the 1994–95 financial crash. Mexico also reduced its loan to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) by $ 1.5 billion to $ 11.5 billion.

President Bill Clinton's visit to Mexico in early May was the first of a U.S. president in 20 years. Clinton was accompanied by 14 members of her administration and signed a number of agreements with her Mexican colleague. Clinton saw the visits and agreements as the beginning of a new era of close cooperation between the two countries.

1997 Mexico

At the July 2012 parliamentary and presidential elections, the PRI candidate,Enrique Peña Nieto elected president with 38.2% of the vote. In second place, PRD's Andrés Manuel López Obrador received 31.6% of the vote. PAN was worn down after 12 years in power, inability to reform and stop domestic violence. Its candidate Josefina Vázquez Mota therefore had to settle for 25.4%. Both PRI and PAN went back into the Chamber of Deputies, as the PRD progressed. In the Senate, PRI went ahead, while PAN and PRD went back. The Labor Party PT got 15 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 4 in the Senate. In the wake of the election, López Obrador demanded a full recount of the votes due to irregularities. The Supreme Electoral Commission allowed re-election in half of the polling stations and subsequently admitted that there had been voting fraud but not enough to deprive Peña Nieto of the presidential post. However, the protests against Nieto continued right up to his deployment on the post in December. Ninety protesters were injured during the deployment and extensive vandalism was made. The government placed the responsibility on "anarchists", but photos later documented that it was the police who had paid paid groups of provocateurs to create violence.

In mid-December, a comprehensive restructuring of the state's fight against domestic violence was carried out. The whole fight was gathered in the Ministry of the Interior. A 10,000 Gendarmerie Corps was set up and the federal police were restructured to focus solely on investigation. At the same time, the ministry announced that 15 new police units were formed, focusing solely on the investigation of kidnappings, extortion and missing persons. Nieto overturned Calderón's anti-violence policy, aimed at openly combating the drug cartels. Instead, Nieto wanted to focus on reducing violence and crime, without necessarily going into open combat with the cartels. During Calderón's presidency, the number of annual drug-related murders had increased from 2,119 in 2006 to 12,358 in 2011. Calderón had deployed the military, and in the worst cities there was an almost permanent state of war - without any improvement. Another major reason why the war on drugs failed was that the cartels spent large sums on corrupting officers, police and politicians, so the cartels were always several steps ahead of government attempts to bring them to life. The change in strategy immediately seemed to work. The number of offenses dropped from 18,161 in the first 10 months of 2012 to 10,929 in the first 10 months of 2013. The change in strategy immediately seemed to work. The number of offenses dropped from 18,161 in the first 10 months of 2012 to 10,929 in the first 10 months of 2013. The change in strategy immediately seemed to work. The number of offenses dropped from 18,161 in the first 10 months of 2012 to 10,929 in the first 10 months of 2013.

There Spiegel and The Guardian was able to report in October 2013 that the mail server attached to the Mexican presidential office had been infiltrated by the US spy center NSA in 2010. NSA has a special unit for particularly difficult operations: Tailored Access Operations (TAO). In May 2010, someone at the NSA made a top-secret document whose content was that TAO managed to infiltrate the central mail server of the Mexican presidential office, and that it was therefore possible for the NSA to read all of President Calderón's emails. The server was also used by ministers, government officials and diplomats, so the US had a snap directly into the Mexican engine room. As early as September 2013, the Brazilian TV station Globo had reported that during the summer 2012 election campaign in Mexico, the NSA had conducted a targeted interception operation against new President Peña Nieto.

On June 30, 22 people were shot and killed by soldiers in an empty warehouse in Tlatlaya, Mexico. The human rights organization CNDH was subsequently able to report that in 12 of the cases it was pure executions. Police subsequently arrested 2 of 3 surviving witnesses, tried to strangle them with a plastic bag over their heads, and then threatened them with signed statements they were not allowed to read. Only on September 25 did the military arrest 24 soldiers and a lieutenant of the massacre.

 

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