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Mauritania

1997 Mauritania

The desertification process that transforms fertile areas into what is today the Sahara Desert would have separated the Berber in the south from those in the north to the Mediterranean coast if they had not begun breeding camels especially suited for travel in the 2nd century BCE. dry zones. This allowed the groups searching the south in search of pastures to keep in touch with their original culture, and later to join the Islamic civilization in the Mediterranean.

According to Countryaah, the southern part of what is today Mauritania was the cradle of one of the most peculiar African civilizations. But the almoravid empire's conquest of the area and the subsequent immigration of Fulanis both mixed and united.

In the 14th century, the Beni hilal tribes arrived in Mauritania. They had invaded North Africa three centuries earlier and now began a two-century period marked by looting and sporadic wars with the Berbers. The scene for this included not only northern Mauritania, but also the southern part of Algeria and Western Sahara. The southern part of the country was part of the Mali Empire. In 1664, all the Berber tribes in the area joined forces to curb the Arabs. The subsequent conflict that lasted 30 years and is known as the Cherr Baba war ended with the defeat of the Berbers. The Arabs settled down as a military aristocracy and called themselves Hassanithat means warriors. They monopolized the use of weapons and allowed the local people to take care of trade, education and other peaceful activities. Among these groups were the so-called haratan shepherds in the southern part of the country who lived under slave-like conditions. In practice, the strict social divide was softened, but it was maintained between the Arabs and the Berbers on the one hand, and Fulani and Soninke the peoples on the other.

At the end of the 17th century, several emirates emerged, but they were unable to politically build the country due to internal rivalry and succession problems. Still, they were able to give the area a minimum of order, also based on the common culture. This provided the basis for the Zuaia (a group of Marabue Berbers) who created a simplified Arabic written language and had it spread ifbm. relegionsundervisningen. At the same time, the caravan trade developed.

In the 19th century, this trade came into conflict with the French project for concentration of Sudanese trade in Senegal (see Mali ). To succeed in this, the trans-Saharan trade had to be eliminated. At the same time, the plundering expeditions against Senegal were frequent, and these two factors were crucial to the French decision to conquer Mauritania. The conquest was initiated in 1858 by General Faidherbe and extended right up to the 20th century. It was initially the Emirates of Trarza and Brakna who resisted the French invasion. It was continued by Sheikh Ma al-Aini (see Western Sahara ), his sons and later his nephew, Muhamad al-Mamún, the emir of Adrar. The French pursued Muhamad al-Mamun 1000 km into the Sahara and killed him in battle in 1934.

After World War II, Mauritania became "overseas French territory" with the right to send deputies to the French parliament. Ten years later, the country gained internal autonomy and in 1960 it became independent. Without infrastructure or administrative experience, its educated resources consisted of almost 5 university educators and 15 students. The population lived by barter, and even today a large number of nomads are.

One single multinational company, the French MIFERMA, had more power than state power. Its iron production accounted for 80% of the country's exports and employed 25% of the country's wage laborers.

 

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