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Libya

Yearbook 1997

Libya. On the second day of the year, six officers and two civilians, convicted of espionage and cooperation with foreign powers, were executed. The executions were directed at the United States, which was accused of having equipped the convicted with technical equipment. However, judges said that the eight were executed for being involved in the coup attempt against Muammar al-Khadaffi in 1993. They executed, all of which belonged to the clan Warfallah, a traditional partner to al-Khadaffi, were long protected by their clan and therefore the executions were interpreted as a sign on the diminished power of the Warfallah clan and al-Khadaffi's strengthened position.

According to Countryaah, American Louis Farrakhan Muhammad, the Black Muslim religious leader, visited Libya again in January, leading to American condemnation. American-Libyan relations were once again characterized by harsh statements when al-Khadaffi flew to Nigeria in the spring in contravention of the international boycott. al-Khadaffi claimed that the trip did not violate the sanctions because it was of a religious nature. However, the UN condemned the trip and the US threatened retaliation.

A gap between victims of victims of the so-called Lockerbie disaster in 1988 and the United States and the United Kingdom became clear since more and more relatives seemed to accept Libya's proposal that the trial of the suspects should take place in a neutral country. The Arab states continued to condemn UN sanctions on Libya and further support was given to Libya in October by South Africa's President Mandela. He declared South Africa's friendship with Libya, and despite open criticism from eg. He visited Libya in the United States and declared that sanctions should be lifted. Thanks to higher crude oil prices, the Libyan economy was strengthened despite the sanctions.

1997 Libya

2011 Rebellion and war against Libya

In December 2010, WikiLeaks revealed the widespread corruption in Tunisia. It sparked a riot that in January removed the country's longtime dictator and EU ally Ben Ali. In February, the uprising spread to Egypt, where US ally, dictator Hosni Mubarak was removed. That same month, the uprising spread to Libya. On February 15, 5-600 Libyans conducted a demonstration in front of the police headquarters in the country's eastern capital Benghazi. The demonstration was attacked by police and 38 wounded. The following day, 1500 protesters tried to storm the security forces' building in the city and burned down the traffic police building.

On February 17, new demonstrations were conducted. Originally to mark the 5 year anniversary of the widespread protests against the Jutland Post's hate campaign against Islam, the demonstration was now turned against the Gaddafi regime. The protests quickly turned violent and 5-15 protesters were killed. The protests and violence then exploded throughout the eastern part of the country. 50 alleged mercenaries and several Gaddafi supporters were lynched and killed in eastern New Al Bayda. Other Gaddafi supporters were trapped in the city of Derma, locked inside a prison, which was then burned down. In Benghazi, protesters captured 2 policemen accused of shooting at protesters. They were hung on the spot.

By that time, the Gaddafi regime had already lost control of the eastern part of the country. Security forces and military were pulled out of Benghazi, and the first reports of soldiers and policemen passing by protesters arrived. Other reports reported attacks on helicopter protesters.

By February 20, the death toll had reached 2-300 and there were reports of bestial brutality on both sides. Tens of thousands of protesters in Benghazi now had access to military and security police weapons stockpiles after they left the city. The protests now spread to the southern part of the country, where the Tuaregs joined the rebellion and there were also occasional demonstrations against the regime in Tripoli.

On the 21st, two pilots fled with their French Mirage aircraft to Malta after refusing to bomb the rebels in the eastern part of the country. Other officers called in to support the rebellion. Libyan ambassadors in India, Indonesia, Bangladesh and the EU resigned in protest against the Gadaffir regime. On February 22, former British Foreign Minister David Owen proposed for the first time the creation of a "flight ban zone" to protect the rebels against Gadaffi's air force. On the same day, General and Interior Minister Abdul Fatah Younis went to the rebels' side. Gadaffi threatened to "massacre" the rebels in the eastern part of the country.

Causes

The background to the rebellion and the war in Libya is complex, and there are different perceptions about the circumstances behind it. The revolt itself was primarily a political protest aimed at an oppressive system. Behind the political conditions lay both historical and cultural roots, with ancient contradictions between different parts of Libya, as well as traditional clan and tribal structures.

Political causes

The conflict was primarily political, with a revolt against a dictatorship and a dictator who had ruled the country in line with his own ideas and ideas. Libya was more developed in social areas than other countries in the region, but without the possibility of real political participation. In the absence of a political culture, and with a ban on political parties and a free press, the uprising was little ideologically colored. The goal was to overthrow the sitting regime and replace it with a democratic regime.

Cultural causes

Behind the uprising also lay ancient cultural and historical conditions. It started in Benghazi, where the Libyan kingdom, as the sitting regime set aside, had its strongest roots. It was the old flag from the time the insurgents went into action. This is also where Islamists had their strongest attachment. During the war, it was considered possible that Libya could be divided by Gaddafi retaining control of Western Tripolitania. From before independence, there was a tradition of militant resistance against foreign rule in Kyrenaika, rooted in the sanusi order.

Economic reasons

While the rebellion in Egypt had an economic dimension in terms of poverty and increasing economic and social inequalities, it played a minor role in Libya, which had long been one of the countries in the region with the highest income and a welfare state - although a significant portion of the population also living below the poverty line. In some groups, Gaddafi's economic policy was dissatisfied, but reforms had corrected some of the criticisms, including the ban on private business.

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