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Yearbook 1997

Lebanon. According to Countryaah, the Lebanon government continued to urge Israel to withdraw from southern Lebanon, which Israelis have been occupying since 1985. has evolved from a group of fanatical guerrillas to an army equipped with heavy conventional weapons. The military upgrades achieved success during the year, e.g. in September, when twelve Israeli elite soldiers were killed as they tried to capture a guerrilla base.

Even in the Beka valley in northern Lebanon, the situation was tense. During the 1975-90 civil war, the Beka Valley was a haven for criminals and guerrillas. The region flourished financially thanks to hashish cultivation, but since the government destroyed the cultivation, poverty has spread. In order to draw the government's attention to the region's economic problems, the former Hezbollah leader Sheikh Subhi Tufayli in July urged the population, among other things. to stop paying taxes and not to seek building permits.

In October, the Sheikh banned members of the country's government and parliament from visiting the Baalbek and Hermel districts, prompting the government to order the military to take control of the area. The troops would stay for three months. In October, the human rights organization Amnesty International reported that the L.A. government had people arrested for political reasons. According to Amnesty, it was common for those arrested to be tortured, beaten or taken to neighboring Syria, which in practice controls Lebanon, to be imprisoned there. Lebanon's government said the information in the report was false.

The Pope visited Beirut in May. It was his first visit to the Middle East. 300,000 people - a tenth of the country's population - attended a fair in central Beirut.

1997 Lebanon

1982 Israeli invasion

In June 82, the Israeli military launched the invasion of Lebanon in a combined operation from the ground, air and water. The cities of Tire and Saida were quickly occupied and Nabatiť and Tripoli destroyed in bombings during the first stage of the operation that Israel called "Peace in Galilee". Beirut was largely destroyed. Thousands of civilians fell. Bridges, oil lines, airports, hospitals, schools, large and small buildings, factories and museums were all blown up.

Another result of the invasion was the capture of 8,000 Palestinians and Lebanese. In miserable conditions, they were gathered in prison camps under suspicion of belonging to resistance movements. No less painful was the looting of the Center for Palestinian Studies by the military and agents from Mossad - the Israeli intelligence agency. The center's material was the fruit of 17 years of study of Palestine's history and culture by 80 scholars. It was now abducted on trucks of unknown destination.

Finally, the PLO was forced to withdraw from Beirut. The condition was that the evacuation should be carried out under international supervision. Soldiers from the United States, France and Italy provided the necessary protection and West Beirut's people bid farewell to Palestinian partisans as heroes before departing for 7 different Arab countries.

1990 The peace process is underway

In October 1990, Syrian-backed forces launched an offensive against Aoun, thus taking advantage of the new situation that had arisen following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Syria joined the anti-Iraqi coalition, preventing Aoun from gaining international support. After brief battles, he was beaten and had to seek asylum in France. In December, for the first time since the start of the civil war, a national unity government consisting of both the Lebanese Forces (Christian militias), the Amal militia (Shiites), the PSP (the Drusians) and the pro-Syrian parties was inaugurated.

On May 22, 91, the Presidents of Syria and Lebanon in Damascus signed a friendship, cooperation and coordination agreement. Syria recognized Lebanon as an independent and independent state. The agreement talked about Syrian-Lebanese coordination in the areas of military, security, culture and economy. It was ratified by a majority in the Lebanese parliament, but the government of Israel, the Falangist Party and the Lebanese Forces opposed the agreement, which they believed gave Syria control over internal Lebanese affairs.

In early July, 6,000 soldiers from the Lebanese army occupied the PLO controlled areas of the port city of Saida in the southern part of the country. The offensive forced the PLO to withdraw from its main operational base facing Israel. Yet, on the 7th of the same month, Israel ruled that it would not withdraw its occupying forces from the security zone.


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