Jamaica. According to
Countryaah, political violence preceded the parliamentary
elections in December. a car column was shot with
representatives of the ruling Peopleʹs National Party (PNP).
At the election, the PNP got 33 out of the parliament's 60
seats. The largest opposition party, JLP (Jamaica Labor
Party), received ten seats.
During the year, the former leader of the PNP, Michael
Manley, who was prime minister in 1972–80 and 1989–92, died.
96% of workers in the free zone were women who were
exposed to extended working days, in miserable working
environment conditions, without security and with low wages.
This had serious consequences for the children in the
capital, Kingston, where 52% of families were headed by
In 1985-87, the workers' government entered into a series
of agreements with the United States on the implementation
of a program to combat drug trafficking. It was estimated
that $ 750 million of marijuana was smuggled annually from
Jamaica to the United States.
In 1989, Michael Manley and the PNP were able to take
over the government again, after being strengthened by the
municipal elections in June 1986. The program he now
presented was very different from his program in 1976. It
was now based on the promotion of private business and good
relations with USA. He restored relations with Cuba,
declaring that he would respect the agreements with the IMF,
even if he would not accept conditions that would lead to a
worsening of social inequalities. His goal was to maintain
economic growth, but with a better distribution of the
After long-term illness, in April 1992, Manley handed
over the Prime Minister's post and PNP chairman to Percival
J. Patterson. Patterson was a well-known politician, former
senator and former minister in several PNP governments.
At the same time that the government provided guarantees
to the trade union movement, in 1992 it initiated the
privatization of some 300 state-owned enterprises, which
were characterized as unproductive. The whole sugar industry
was also part of this privatization program.
At the March 1993 election, the PNP got 60% of the vote,
and Patterson could thus continue on the prime minister's
post. The Labor Party - led by the increasingly criticized
Edward Seaga - declined to take part in the midterm
elections in 1994 and fiercely criticized the electoral