Africa Asia Europe North America South America Oceania
You are here: Home > Asia > Iraq

Iraq

Yearbook 1997

Iraq. Tensions between Iraq and the UN - with the United States at the forefront - intensified during the fall to the extent that both parties were preparing for war before the acute crisis was diminished. The background was the United Nations Commission on UNSCOM (United Nations Special Commission) search for weapons of mass destruction - nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and missile systems. Iraqis say they have scrapped the weapons in question, but the UN is accusing them of hiding, above all, biological weapons that could spread e.g. anthrax over the Middle East.

In October, Richard Butler, who succeeded Rolf Ek谷us as UNSCOM chief in July, called for inspections of facilities controlled by President Saddam Hussein's elite force, the Republican Guard. Iraq responded by expelling the US UNSCOM staff, which the US interpreted as evidence that the inspectors had the hidden biological weapons on track. But a partial explanation was likely that Iraq wanted to exploit the split in the Security Council that became apparent during the autumn, when among other things. According to Countryaah, the Russian Federation and France - with major financial interests in Iraq - opposed US demands for stricter sanctions against Iraq

Once again, however, the Iraqi leader misjudged the situation. The trail was closed to Iraq and the UN interrupted inspections for the first time since its inception in 1991. The United States threatened with military action and called several aircraft carriers to the region, whereupon Iraq deployed civilians at sensitive facilities to deter attack. Saddam Hussein also threatened to shoot down the US plan over the country, which the US said would be interpreted as a declaration of war.

But on November 20, the crisis seemed to resolve after a mediation effort by Russian Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov, who speaks Arabic and is personally acquainted with Saddam Hussein. The United States claimed that Iraq was unconditional while Iraq said that the Russian Federation promised to make efforts to impose sanctions. The weapons inspectors, including the Americans, resumed their work. However, the atmosphere remained irritated when the UN demanded access to some 60 facilities which Iraq did not open with reference to the security of the nation.

Until the UN is satisfied, the sanctions introduced against Iraq after the Kuwait War 1990-91. The sanctions cause the Iraqi civilian population great suffering. The United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF and the World Food Program (WFP) reported in November that around one million children suffer from malnutrition, that 20% of the population does not have access to clean water and that the health care system has no anesthetic and sterilization options. During the year, however, the so-called food for the oil program continued, which means that Iraq under the UN's supervision, it may sell oil worth 2 million. dollars (about SEK 15 million) every six months if the money is used to buy food and medicine.

At the beginning of the year came reports of a power struggle within the Iraqi leadership, but nothing was heard of this later. The conflict with the UN may have seemed unifying.

1997 Iraq

June 2004. The quisling regime takes over

On May 17, Ezzedine Salim was killed by a car bomb in front of the Occupation Force headquarters in Baghdad. He was the head of the Iraqi government, and was appointed by the United States to be prime minister after June 30. He was replaced on the post on May 28 by Iyad Allawi.

For fear of widespread demonstrations and assaults, the occupying power deployed at a secret ceremony at its heavily guarded headquarters in Baghdad Allawi as prime minister on June 28, two days earlier than officially announced, and US state governor Paul Bremer left the country immediately thereafter. From the point of view of the occupying power and its supporters, the power was now handed over to the Iraqi people, and the only reason that 150,000 foreign soldiers remained in the country was because the new government had asked the forces to stay. Others compared the situation to Nazi Germany's insertion of Vidkun Quisling as Prime Minister of German-occupied Norway during World War II. In both cases, the civil government alone aimed to give legitimacy to the foreign occupying power.

Reports in North American media later reported the chaos during Bremer's last weeks in Iraq. The governor asked for several billion US $ in US $ 100 banknotes. They were divided into attempts to buy US support in the last days before the "transfer of power".

On July 2, Saddam Hussein was placed before a judge, and to everyone's surprise, the session was broadcast live on TV. Saddam was charged with genocide and war crimes, and he again responded by defending the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, declaring that George W. Bush was the real war criminal. The far more politically practiced Saddam apparently emerged from the TV duel as victor, and the new national security adviser, Mowaffaq al-Rubaie, declared that the trial against Saddam should not evolve into a TV show, but that he would get a fair trial.

That same month, the United States State Audit Office (GAO) reported in a report to Congress that after 14 months of occupation, the situation of electricity and water supply, the judiciary and security had deteriorated. Acc. According to the GAO report, in 13 out of the country's 18 provinces, only a few hours daily flow. Less than the month before the invasion. 20 million people live in these 13 provinces. Of the $ 58 billion Only $ 20 billion has been allocated to the country's reconstruction. that has been used for that purpose. The rest is used for administration. The judiciary is more weakened than it was before the war, and judges are often subjected to murder trials. According to the new Iraqi civil defense, police and other security forces. GAO of extensive desertions, poor education and total lack of equipment and infrastructure.

On July 7, Iyad Allawi signed the National Security Act, which gives the government the right to introduce state of emergency in problem-hardened areas. The law also contained provisions on curfews, roadside checks and detention of suspects. Both in Iraq and the rest of the Middle East, the media doubted whether the law would curb the violence and would not be used to violate civil rights.

In April 2004, John Dimitri Negroponte was named United States Ambassador to Iraq. In the 1980s, he was the United States Ambassador to Honduras, where he co-directed the creation of death patrols and the eradication of other thinkers. He brought this experience to Iraq and embarked on the construction of death patrols for the extermination of Sunnis. The patrols were built partly from Shiite gangs and partly from security forces in the Iraqi ministries. While Sunnis and Shiites had until then lived side by side and married into each other's families without major religious contradictions, Negroponte succeeded in cultivating the religious violence between Sunnis and Shiites. The Sunni groups that killed their leaders by the death squad of Negropont responded again with killings of Shiite leaders, and a religious spiral of violence Iraq had not previously known was set in motion. This kind of violence escalated through 2005 and 06.

On August 5, an American military helicopter was shot down at the holy city of the Shiites by Nayaf. At least two soldiers were injured in the crash. At the subsequent exchange of gunfire, at least two people were killed and several injured. The clash jeopardized the ceasefire between Moqtada al Sadr and the occupying forces.

On August 8, the government reinstated the death penalty with immediate effect. It had been suspended since Saddam was overthrown in April 2003. Deputy Justice Busho Ibrahim Ali stated at a press conference that the following crimes could trigger the death penalty: murder, abduction, drug trafficking, attacks on national security, vital infrastructure and biological attacks arms. Interior Minister Adnan al-Janabi declared that the punishment could be used against anyone committing crimes within Iraq's borders - ie. also foreigners. The EU strongly condemned the re-introduction of the death penalty.

 

Other Countries in Asia

Arist Countries Copyright 1997 - 2020 All Rights Reserved