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India

Yearbook 1997

1997 IndiaIndia. In March, the Congress Party withdrew its support for the United Front's minority government. It had taken office in the spring of 1996 and, with the help of the Congress Party, could have kept the Hindu Nationalist Indian People's Party, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), out of power.

Congress leader Sitaram Kesri, however, misjudged the possibility of obtaining a majority for his own government. The crisis ended with the resignation of Prime Minister HD Deve Gowda and replaced by Foreign Minister Inder Kumar Gujral.

In May, the government presented a budget that reduced both income and corporate taxes by 5-10% and reduced import duties. In return, more citizens must start paying taxes; today, the state receives tax from only 12 million out of 950 million residents.

According to Countryaah, the government was shaken again in June when Laloo Prasad Yadav, head of government in the state of Bihar, was indicted for embezzlement. Yadav was leader of the People's Party, Janata Dal (JD), the most important party in the central government. The scandal worsened when he put his barely literate wife to rule Bihar.

In November, a report on the assassination of former Prime Minister Ravij Gandhi was presented in 1991. The Congress party demanded that the DMK be excluded from the government, and when that did not happen, the Congress party canceled the government. New elections were announced at the beginning of 1998.

The continued flammability of the caste system was illustrated by the rattles that shook Bombay in July, after a statue of the low-throwing freedom fighter Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was violated. In December, at least 60 low-caste farmers in Bihar were killed by a high-caste landowner militia. During the year, however, the low-key, "untouchable", diplomat Kocheril Raman Narayanan was elected by superior majority to the country's tenth president.

In Kashmir, the Swedish-built power plant in Uri was completed in May. Construction work had been ongoing since 1989 at a cost of just over SEK 5 billion, of which SEK 1.3 billion was a gift from Sweden.

In the spring, Indian police said they had received evidence that Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi was one of the recipients of Bofors bribe money in the 1980s.

Through his close friendship with then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and his Italian-born wife Sonia, new suspicions were directed at Gandhi. However, no evidence was presented that Gandhi himself enriched.

1997 India

1992 Hindu fundamentalism

Throughout 1992, a significant number of assaults took place against the Muslim population perpetrated by Hindu fundamentalists in the northern cities of Bombay and Ayodhya. In the latter, a mosque had been erected in 1528, and it was the same place Brahma according to. the Hindu tradition had been born. In December, Lalrishan Advani - the leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (PBJ) - ordered his supporters to tear down the mosque. The clashes that followed cost 1300 lives in several cities around the country and also spread to Bangla Desh and Pakistan. In 1995, the Supreme Court dealt with the case of the existence of a possible Hindu temple in Ayodhya, where the Babri mosque had since been built. It was the one that had been destroyed by Hindu fundamentalists in December 1992. However, the members of the court unanimously decided to refuse to comment in this case.

Prime Minister Rao's reform plans were put forward by Finance Minister Man Mohan Singh and consisted in opening the Indian market to foreign investment. The state should gradually reduce its interference with the economy, allow the local currency - rupiah - to float above the dollar and finally remove import restrictions. They led inflation to fall below 10% in 1995, to a reduction in the budget deficit, while exports continued to rise since 1992. The country's external debt is equivalent to 38% of its GDP (60% in Denmark), and per share. capita income among the country's 935 million inhabitants is among Asia's lowest.

Economic reforms led to protests from several sectors - especially agriculture. The resistance to the presence of multinational companies interested in the sale of fertilizers and seed was particularly strong. During the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, the World Bank had issued extensive loans for the purchase of genetically engineered seed, while at the same time granting the farmers a subsidy. The government now decided to follow the World Bank's structural adjustment program, which included the abolition of these subsidies. The association of farmers in the state of Karnataka cited the protests, which since 1991 had also included direct actions against representatives of multinational companies.

At the International Conference on Farmers' Rights in the Third World in Bangalore 3-4. In October 1993, the peasants declared that "the seeds, plants, biological material and wealth of the Third World are the people of the collective intellectual property of the Third World". It was decided to develop these rights to the system of private patents favoring the introduction of monocultures, thus attacking biodiversity.

Despite a September 1993 earthquake that killed 10,000 people and the violence between the religious communities, the government was optimistic at the start of 1994. But at the same time, the differences between the states were increasing. The northern state of Uttar Pradesh where 140 million people live showed a social development that was far below the national average. At the same time, in 1995, the male population exceeded the female by 1,000 males for every 882 females. At the same time, in the southern state of Kerala, it was rare to see beggars. 90% of its population can read and write, and the child mortality rate of 17 ‰ is closer to Washington DC than to the rest of India, where it is 79 ‰.

 

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