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Guatemala

Yearbook 1997

Guatemala. In January, a four-year international aid plan for the fulfillment of the December 1996 peace agreement was signed in Brussels, marking a 36-year civil war. Together, the EU, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank granted loans of approximately SEK 11 billion. Guatemala's government promised to contribute SEK 5.6 billion. through increased taxes.

According to Countryaah, demobilized guerrillas from the URNG movement chose a new leadership tasked with creating a political party. Ricardo Ramírez was appointed chairman of the management.

In July, the president dismissed both the defense minister and the country's army chief. It was feared that this could lead to the hardening of forces in the military increasing its influence and that the demilitarization that the peace agreement established would not be fully implemented.

1997 Guatemala

During the first ten centuries of our time, the Maya civilization flourished in what is today Guatemala as well as parts of Mexico, Honduras and El Salvador.

Under the leadership of Pedro de Alvarado, the Spanish conquistadores invaded the country in 1524, founded the capital of Guatemala and gained 2 years later total control over the country, which was still in a transitional phase following the collapse of the ancient Mayan empire. There was considerable rivalry between the Mayan peoples, first and foremost the most important people: K'iche ', Kaqchi', Mam, Q'eqchi ', Poqomchi', Q'anjob'al and Tz'utujiil. The conflicts benefited the occupying power, which was nevertheless frequently faced with stubborn resistance.

On September 15, 1821, the country's major landlords, large merchants and the colonial administration of Guatemala declared independence from Spain. The country then went by the name of Capitania General de Guatemala and consisted of all 5 current Central American countries. The independence was proclaimed at the same time as Mexico, "in order to avoid the frightening consequences that could arise if the people themselves proclaimed the independence", as stated in the statement. 1. The new country was named the United Provinces of Central America. However, it was dissolved as early as 1839, as a result of divisions between the various factions of the bourgeoisie and British imperialist policy aimed at dividing the American nations.

Heavy in debt, the government had already in 1831 transferred vast forests to Britain that would utilize them for afforestation. The area facing the Caribbean was first named British Honduras, and after independence, Belize.

In the mid-18th century, Europeans invented artificial dyes, which threw Guatemala into a deep economic crisis, as natural dyes such as indigo had so far been the country's main export goods. The production of dyes was now replaced with the production of coffee. In 1871, the Liberals carried out a " reform " which involved expropriating the lands of the Native American population and handing over the large landowners who exploited it for coffee production. The conflict between the liberal and conservative part of the bourgeoisie became, as in the rest of Latin America, the hallmark of political life in the country in the last quarter of the 19th century. In the same period, German settlers arrived to the country, and as they plunged into coffee production, it created further conflicts over traditional bourgeoisie.

In the late 19th century, Manuel Estrada Cabrera came to power. He ruled the country until 1920 and opened up North American capital, which in a few decades became the owner of the country's railways, ports, electricity generation, shipping, the international post and, above all, vast lands, such as the powerful multinational corporation, United Fruit Company (UFCO) used to produce bananas on.

 

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