Georgia. According to
Countryaah, Representatives of the Georgian government and
the Abkhazia Republic met in Geneva in July for talks under
UN supervision. Georgia's leadership has never acknowledged
Abkhazia. No formal agreements were reached, but both
parties declared themselves willing to resolve the
contradictions on a peaceful path. The UN Special
Representative in Georgia, Liviu Bota, said that the meeting
reduced the risk of continued fighting when the
Russian-dominated peacekeeping mandate expired on July 31.
He wanted to extend the mandate despite the mandate, and on
August 1, Russian officers declared that they had no
immediate intention to leave the country.
Eduard Shevardnadze welcomed Russian President Yeltsin's
proposal for a peaceful resolution of the conflict. The
proposal reaffirmed Georgia's territorial integrity while
providing considerable autonomy for Abkhazia, and also
provided guarantees for the return of Aboriginal ethnic
Georgians. However, the proposal was rejected by Abkhazia
President Vladislav Ardzinba, who claimed that Abkhazia was
no longer part of Georgia. Nevertheless, Ardzinba, together
with Russian Foreign Minister Yevgeny Primakov and Georgian
President Shevardnadze, attended a meeting in Tbilisi in
Again, it was possible to agree to try to resolve the
conflict with peaceful means, but nothing more. Ardzinba
stressed after the meeting that Abkhazia would not make any
more concessions to find a solution, a statement that was
severely criticized by the Georgian refugees from Abkhazia.
These argued that Georgia should intervene militarily to
restore Georgian supremacy over Abkhazia. However,
Shevardnadze excluded military resources but wanted to
organize Abkhazia into a federal Georgian state.
After the presidential election, Prime Minister Bidzina
Ivanishvili resigned voluntarily in November 2013. he had
otherwise held office since October 2012. New Prime Minister
became former Interior Minister Irakli Garibashvili, who at
the same time became chairman of the party. With the
constitutional amendment, he now held the country's
strongest political post, declaring he would step up efforts
to join NATO and the EU.
Following the NATO Summit in July 2014, the United States
decided to supply Black Hawk helicopters and other advanced
weapons to Georgia.
Throughout 2012, 13 and 14, there were ongoing reports of
torture and condescending treatment of detainees at the
country's police stations and prisoners in its prisons. The
N8 prison stood out here as the center for particularly
harsh treatment of the prisoners. This is also where a
torture video in 2012 had been recorded and broadcast on TV.
Authorities conducted investigations, but charged no one for
torture, only unnecessary use of force.
In March 2015, 50 members of the Georgia Dream coalition
entered the UNM offices in Zugdidi armed with clubs and
stones. They razed the office. 9 people were injured,
including one of the police officers who tried to curb the
attack, but the police officers were numerically inferior to
On September 17, 2015, the Constitutional Court issued an
order to release the opposition activist and former Tblisi
mayor, Gigi Ugulava. He had been jailed in 2013, charged
with fraud and money laundering. The court declared the jail
invalid because it had far exceeded the 9-month legal
framework before trial. The judges of the court were then
harshly criticized by several ministers and threatened with
violence by several groups linked to the government. The
following day, therefore, Gigi Ugulava was again arrested
and sentenced to 4½ years in prison on the same day.
Political tension in the country peaked at the end of
2015 after Prime Minister Garibashvili made several rough
statements about the opposition UNM. The government made
public viewing on large screens of video footage of a rape
in a prison conducted by the previous UNM government and
also announced intercepted communications between the former
and now exiled president and opposition TV station Rustavi
2. Several UNM offices around the country were raided by
supporters of the government coalition.
Rustavi 2 was also at the center of another case in
October/November, with the government gaining control of the
station. A former shareholder of the station filed suit
against the current owners. On October 21, the station's
director stated that he had been subjected to extortion by
the intelligence service that threatened to publish intimate
footage of him unless he resigned. Subsequently, Tbilisi
City Court issued an order in favor of the former
shareholder, and 2 directors were then removed by
authorities on November 5 and replaced by 2 government
officials. This despite a ruling by the Constitutional Court
that said the final decision had to await the appeal. An
appeals court upheld the June 2016 ruling.
Prime Minister Garibashvili resigned from office in
December 2015 and was replaced by Giorgi Kvirikashvili. No
official justification was given for his resignation, but
observers pointed out that Georgia's Dream Coalition had
only 18% support in polls and with the prospect of
parliamentary elections in 2016, the coalition had to do
something drastic to try to regain support. Prime Minister
Kvirikashvili tried to improve relations with the president,
but this remained tense. In 2016, it was further aggravated
as Georgia's Dream initiated a constitutional reform process
aimed at reducing the importance of the presidential office.
Among other things. by abolishing the direct election to
office. In October 2017, Parliament passed the
constitutional amendment. The president tried to block the
adoption with a veto.