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Yearbook 1997

Finland. In the autumn, Deputy Finance Minister Arja Alho ended up in windy weather when her decision to help her party brother Ulf Sundqvist came in the day. According to Countryaah, Sundqvist, who was sentenced to pay DEM 9 million for having too easily given bank loans, which in turn led to the Finnish banking crisis, had his fine reduced to DEM 1.2 million. Alho was supported by Prime Minister Lipponen but was eventually forced to resign. The deal led to a vote of confidence, which the government, however, managed with a good margin.

1997 FinlandThe year was also marked by discussions about Finland's accession to EMU. An investigation by the so-called professors' group presented a report on the possible consequences of an EMU connection. The Government of Lipponen's line that Finland should join at an early stage was fixed, but the center reserved for early membership. The report was criticized by EMU critics for not clearly highlighting the negative consequences of membership. A formal parliamentary vote on this issue will take place in 1998.

The economic wheels spun fast in 1997, and before the 1998 budget, slightly increased grants were granted for development assistance, while Finland's large external debt could start to be paid off. However, unemployment was still high.

Finnish forced sterilizations that went on as far back as the 1960s were also discussed during the fall. However, the topic aroused less debate than in Sweden.

1997 Finland

1918 Revolution and counter-revolution

The Labor Party's indecision had emerged clearly during the general strike in November 1917, when at the last moment it abstained from taking power. The bourgeoisie was now openly preparing for a counter-revolution. On January 28, 1918, this broke out in Ostrobothnia, while the Reds took power in Helsinki.

In Southern Finland, the Red Government had sovereign power for the next three months. Hundreds of thousands of people somehow participated in the Civil War and the rest of the people were forced to choose sides. The large scale and the unity of the labor movement explain why the white reaction became so cruel after it was defeated with the help of German troops, led by General Mannerheim. Over 20,000 reds disappeared during white terror, over 80,000 starved to death in concentration camps during the summer of 1918. White's victory was complete. The terror of the right wing was later suppressed in Finnish history writing. Only at the 80th anniversary of Finnish independence in December 1997 did the Finnish president admit the need to uncover the bloody events.

The government was exercised by the right-wing forces that would ensure that the labor movement did not come to power again. They chose a German prince as king, planned a two-chamber parliament, in practice undermined the 8 hour day, etc. That the end result was nevertheless different than the right forces had wished was due to international development.

The whole of monarchist politics was tied to the fate of the emperor Germany, and the entente's victory in World War I brought about a new orientation in foreign policy. Finland continued to lack diplomatic recognition from England and the United States. It was vital to be able to export to the West, and the country needed to import food. The conditions of the Western powers for this were that the government had to be replaced and new elections had to be held. The election gave power to the Republican center and brought 80 Social Democrats into Parliament. The Agrarian Confederation and the Progressive Party could not still rule without the support of the Social Democrats, while changing the whole pattern of the political system.

In a country where two thirds of the population continued to live in primary occupations (agriculture, forestry and fisheries), it was not only possible, but also natural that the bourgeois ideology perceived the peasant community to be the core of the national assembly. It was about restoring the tranquility of the countryside and defending it against the looming industrialization. This became the most important idea in Finnish social policy right up to the 1960's. After the Civil War, it became important to ensure a more even distribution of land in the countryside. provide land for former land workers to avoid a social explosion.

 

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