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Egypt

Yearbook 1997

Egypt. As part of the fight against Islamist movements, in February, Parliament extended for a further three years the exception laws that allow detainees to be detained without trial, to censor the media and to put civilians before military courts. The exceptions have been in force since the assassination of President Anwar as-Sadat in 1981. The government justified the extension that the state needs to expand powers to continue privatizations and attract investors to the country.

According to Countryaah, a government reform in July was considered to accelerate economic reform. Yusuf Butrus-Ghali was appointed new Minister of Economy with many years of experience in reform work. The economic situation in Egypt was considered quite favorable and the government expected that investment would increase significantly compared to 1996, when the privatization process tended to slow down.

General Mustafa Abd al-Qadir, former head of the security service and as such the supreme leader in the fight against armed Islamists, was appointed governor of the troubled province of Minya some 30 kilometers south of Cairo. Shortly after he took office, Minya police said they had killed 13 Islamists and seized hundreds. However, long prison sentences, death sentences and executions did not appear to have a deterrent effect. About 20 Coptic Christians were killed in two assaults at the beginning of the year and in October eleven police officers were killed in Minya. Nine German tourists were killed in September when fire bombs were thrown at their bus outside the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Two brothers were later sentenced to death for the assault. Of the 90 death sentences sentenced to Islamist violent crimes since 1992, 57 had been enforced until November 1.

In November, the world was shocked by Islamist fanatics' assault on tourists at an ancient temple in the classic resort of Luxor. 58 tourists were killed, most of them Swiss and Japanese, and in a subsequent firefight, four police officers and six terrorists were shot dead. The attack was the worst so far in Egypt and prompted other tourists to leave the country quickly. So far, the terrorists have succeeded in their intent: to target the Egyptian tourism industry. The lack of security also led to the dismissal of the Interior Minister.

1997 Egypt

The September 2001 terrorist attack on the United States led to a drastic decline in tourism revenue, which remains an important source of currency. Egypt, therefore, had to borrow foreign loans to cover the deficits that had arisen. In March 2002, Mubarak made a trip to Washington to present Bush his own plan for peace between Israel and Palestine. The plan was to start with a summit between the two parties in the Egyptian seaside resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. Prior to his trip, he had spoken on the phone with his Israeli colleague Ariel Sharon"We didn't solve all the problems in the few minutes, but this meeting can help break the stalemate... by showing them in conversation," Mubarak declared. In the future, Mubarak may receive more support from the United States than Israel, and at the same time Mubarak wants to maintain his close relationship with Yasser Arafat, making him an ideal peace broker.

During Israel's total re-occupation of Palestine in the spring of 2002, Mubarak strongly condemned Israel, accusing the country of being guilty of state terrorism for its violation of the Geneva Conventions and the basic human rights of the Palestinians. He referred here directly to the Israeli massacre at the refugee camp in Jenin. Finally, he referred to certain international powers - the United States - who ran from their international obligations, and lost all credibility.

Egypt's involvement in the Israel-Palestine conflict and the constant Israeli assaults led the country initially to reject the United States' call to support the superpower's conquest of Iraq. Instead, Mubarak declared that the superpower should prioritize resolving the conflict between Palestine and Israel, and that the superpower's conquest plans for Iraq would simply create 100 new Bin Ladens.

In September 2003, the authorities released the Islamic leader, who in October 1981 had ordered the then President Anwar al Sadat murdered. Karam Zohdy then sat in the leadership of the Islamic group al-Gamaa al-Islamiya, the country's most important armed rebel group.

In the first days of January 2004, Iran's Vice President Mohammad Ali Abtahi declared that his country and Egypt would resume diplomatic relations.

A terror attack on the Hilton Hotel in Taba and a camp for backpack tourists in Ras Shitani in Sinai on October 7, 2004 cost at least 34 lives and over 100 injured - many Israelis. In the following weeks, the security forces arbitrarily arrested several thousand people, and according to. a Human Rights Watch report published in January 2005, many of them were tortured. By the time of the report, 2,400 people had disappeared. The mass arrests were carried out without arrest warrants or legal authorization, as otherwise required by law. However, the extensive arrests and torture had identified only 9 suspects. Human Rights Watch Middle East and North Africa Director Joe Stork,

In April 2005, the Supreme Human Rights Council in Egypt issued its first annual report, which was exceptionally sharp when taking into account that the council is funded by the government and its members appointed by the government. The report criticized Egyptian security forces for routinely arresting anyone present at a crime scene. They then routinely use torture of the detainees to obtain information. This practice has been criticized by independent human rights groups for years, and it was the first time it was confirmed by a government organization. The report also recommended that the state of emergency had been in 24 years before the parliamentary and presidential elections were held later that year.

 

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