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Denmark

Yearbook 1997

1997 DenmarkDenmark. According to Countryaah, local and regional elections in the autumn became a victory for right-wing forces. The Danish People's Party, led by Pia Kjærsgaard, took part in elections for the first time and received 6.8% of the votes on an xenophobic program. Lost, above all, was the Social Democrats, the Progressive Party and the bourgeois parties.

At national level, politics was still characterized by the question of whether the Danish EU accession was unconstitutional. In June, it was ruled in court that Prime Minister Rasmussen did not violate the law when he handed over powers to the EU. A final decision on this issue comes in the spring of 1998 from the Danish Supreme Court. It was also decided during the year that another referendum on the EU issue should take place. Then the Danish people will decide on the new EU constitution.

For the first time in ten years, the Danish government could promise a budget surplus. Unemployment also continued to decline, partly due to an active investment in employment measures and education. GDP grew steadily, while fears of too rapid inflation were raised.

As a foreign policy triumph, US President Bill Clinton's visit counted in June. Denmark became the first Nordic country to receive an American president on official visit. However, relations with China were worse during the year when Denmark tried to enforce a China-critical UN resolution.

1997 Denmark

The modernization of Danish capitalism 1957-70

In 1957-58, the economic picture changed. Up until the mid-1960's, a regular "boom" occurred in the Danish economy as a result of the capitalist boom in Western Europe and the United States, the involvement of the labor reserve and a number of investment-promoting measures by the Social Democratic governments under HC Hansen and Viggo Kampmann. The economic boom led to Denmark being transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society with rapid growth in urban areas and emigration from the country. In 1957, 20% of the working population in agriculture worked, while that figure dropped to 10% in 1970 and further to 4.5% in 1997. During the same period, the number of jobs in industry and - not least - in administration and service industries grew sharply, with 93% of the working population today being employed. Industry exports already passed agricultural in the early 1960's and in 1998 were six times greater than those of agriculture.

At the same time as the heavily changed business structure, the production process also changed the character through new technology and other forms of work organization. Conveyor belts and work on new machines eventually replaced the former craftsmanship and manufacturing-based production methods. However, the corporate structure was still characterized by many small and medium-sized entities, and only a small number of very large companies. But the capital structure and power relations within industrial and banking capital cannot be read solely from the size of the companies. It is clear that there has been a monopolization and that the large capital has strengthened its position. Organizationally, this is reflected in the fact that the leading employer organization today is Dansk Industri, and not the Danish Employers' Association, which otherwise formally organizes all employers in the country.

During this development, the class structure has also shifted. The petty bourgeoisie in the countryside and in the cities has to some extent been proletarized, while the working class, salaried employees and middle classes have increased in number. In particular, the service industries and the public sector have grown strongly - partly as a result of a 'backlog' in the development of the rest of Europe and partly as a result of the new 'accumulation model' demand for higher qualification and reproduction levels for the labor force. It is characteristic that industrial production almost doubled and exports more than tripled from 1960 to 1970, while the number of workers increased by only 6% during the same period.

Thus, there was a strong increase in productivity, a considerable intensification of work and extortion of added value. In contrast, the working class received higher real wages and a sharp decline in the number of unemployed. However, the increase in real wages was not as high as the productivity increase. Nevertheless, unemployment reached 2-4%.

Copenhagen - geography

The landscape in Greater Copenhagen is to the west a relatively smooth, clayey moraine surface. To the north, the landscape is hilly with alternating clay and sandy moraine, of which significant parts lie more than 50 masl; highest is Maglebjerg (91 m) in Rude Skov.

The high parts alternate with valleys such as from Bagsværd Lake to Klampenborg and from Furesøen to Vedbæk; they are formed by meltwater at the end of the last ice age.

The central parts of Greater Copenhagen consist of flat arched hills, which in Valby and Brønshøj reach over 30 m. The hills are separated by two valley systems in the northeast-southwest direction; at the bottom are Sortedamssøen, Peblingesøen and Skt. Jørgens Sø, further out another, which from Damhussøen goes via Lersøparken to Tuborg Havn.

Ladegårdsåen and Harrestrup Å drain these valleys (now mostly in pipes) to the southeast to Øresund. The coastal parts of the city are flat former seabed or like the port areas, western Amager and much of inner Copenhagen built on fill.

Greater Copenhagen's business community is concentrated on the trade and service sector. The state has 66,000 jobs in Greater Copenhagen, corresponding to 8% of the city's jobs, 40,000 of which are in the City of Copenhagen itself (2005).

The large business and labor market organizations that often cooperate with the state administration are also located in the city. Copenhagen is also the center of Denmark's banking and finance world with the largest banks, insurance companies and credit unions, and here are also the headquarters of multinational companies such as AP Møller.

Although industry plays a relatively modest role in Greater Copenhagen, the city with 70,000 industrial jobs (2005) is still the country's largest industrial city.

The pharmaceutical industry and the electronics industry with highly educated labor are well represented in the city and its suburbs; likewise, several of the large magazines and publishers are located in central Copenhagen. Many companies in other industries also have their headquarters and research and development departments in the city. Many of the former industrial areas are today built up with homes or office buildings.

Many service industries that serve the administration, industry and the country's other businesses are concentrated in Greater Copenhagen. This applies to wholesale trade, freight and air transport, telecommunications, data processing and information technology, consulting engineering and architectural services, technological research and other business consultancy.

With 37,000 students (2007), the University of Copenhagen is the country's largest. Other significant higher education institutions are the Business School in Frederiksberg and the Technical University of Denmark in Lyngby. In addition, School of Architecture, College of Dentistry and the University of IT. Rigshospitalet in Østerbro is the Danish hospital system's leading institution and also functions as a university hospital.

 

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