Countryaah, local and regional elections in the autumn
became a victory for right-wing forces. The Danish People's
Party, led by Pia Kjærsgaard, took part in elections for the
first time and received 6.8% of the votes on an xenophobic
program. Lost, above all, was the Social Democrats, the
Progressive Party and the bourgeois parties.
At national level, politics was still characterized by
the question of whether the Danish EU accession was
unconstitutional. In June, it was ruled in court that Prime
Minister Rasmussen did not violate the law when he handed
over powers to the EU. A final decision on this issue comes
in the spring of 1998 from the Danish Supreme Court. It was
also decided during the year that another referendum on the
EU issue should take place. Then the Danish people will
decide on the new EU constitution.
For the first time in ten years, the Danish government
could promise a budget surplus. Unemployment also continued
to decline, partly due to an active investment in employment
measures and education. GDP grew steadily, while fears of
too rapid inflation were raised.
As a foreign policy triumph, US President Bill Clinton's
visit counted in June. Denmark became the first Nordic
country to receive an American president on official visit.
However, relations with China were worse during the year
when Denmark tried to enforce a China-critical UN
The modernization of Danish capitalism 1957-70
In 1957-58, the economic picture changed. Up until the
mid-1960's, a regular "boom" occurred in the Danish economy
as a result of the capitalist boom in Western Europe and the
United States, the involvement of the labor reserve and a
number of investment-promoting measures by the Social
Democratic governments under HC Hansen and Viggo Kampmann.
The economic boom led to Denmark being transformed from an
agricultural society to an industrial society with rapid
growth in urban areas and emigration from the country. In
1957, 20% of the working population in agriculture worked,
while that figure dropped to 10% in 1970 and further to 4.5%
in 1997. During the same period, the number of jobs in
industry and - not least - in administration and service
industries grew sharply, with 93% of the working population
today being employed. Industry exports already passed
agricultural in the early 1960's and in 1998 were six times
greater than those of agriculture.
At the same time as the heavily changed business
structure, the production process also changed the character
through new technology and other forms of work organization.
Conveyor belts and work on new machines eventually replaced
the former craftsmanship and manufacturing-based production
methods. However, the corporate structure was still
characterized by many small and medium-sized entities, and
only a small number of very large companies. But the capital
structure and power relations within industrial and banking
capital cannot be read solely from the size of the
companies. It is clear that there has been a monopolization
and that the large capital has strengthened its position.
Organizationally, this is reflected in the fact that the
leading employer organization today is Dansk Industri, and
not the Danish Employers' Association, which otherwise
formally organizes all employers in the country.
During this development, the class structure has also
shifted. The petty bourgeoisie in the countryside and in the
cities has to some extent been proletarized, while the
working class, salaried employees and middle classes have
increased in number. In particular, the service industries
and the public sector have grown strongly - partly as a
result of a 'backlog' in the development of the rest of
Europe and partly as a result of the new 'accumulation
model' demand for higher qualification and reproduction
levels for the labor force. It is characteristic that
industrial production almost doubled and exports more than
tripled from 1960 to 1970, while the number of workers
increased by only 6% during the same period.
Thus, there was a strong increase in productivity, a
considerable intensification of work and extortion of added
value. In contrast, the working class received higher real
wages and a sharp decline in the number of unemployed.
However, the increase in real wages was not as high as the
productivity increase. Nevertheless, unemployment reached
Copenhagen - geography
The landscape in Greater Copenhagen is to the west a relatively smooth,
clayey moraine surface. To the north, the landscape is hilly with alternating
clay and sandy moraine, of which significant parts lie more than 50
masl; highest is Maglebjerg (91 m) in Rude Skov.
The high parts alternate with valleys such as from Bagsværd Lake to
Klampenborg and from Furesøen to Vedbæk; they are formed by meltwater at the end
of the last ice age.
The central parts of Greater Copenhagen consist of flat arched hills, which
in Valby and Brønshøj reach over 30 m. The hills are separated by two valley
systems in the northeast-southwest direction; at the bottom
are Sortedamssøen, Peblingesøen and Skt. Jørgens Sø, further out another, which
from Damhussøen goes via Lersøparken to Tuborg Havn.
Ladegårdsåen and Harrestrup Å drain these valleys (now mostly in pipes) to
the southeast to Øresund. The coastal parts of the city are flat former seabed
or like the port areas, western Amager and much of inner Copenhagen built on
Greater Copenhagen's business community is concentrated on the trade and
service sector. The state has 66,000 jobs in Greater Copenhagen, corresponding
to 8% of the city's jobs, 40,000 of which are in the City of Copenhagen itself
The large business and labor market organizations that often cooperate with
the state administration are also located in the city. Copenhagen is also the
center of Denmark's banking and finance world with the largest banks, insurance
companies and credit unions, and here are also the headquarters of multinational
companies such as AP Møller.
Although industry plays a relatively modest role in Greater Copenhagen, the
city with 70,000 industrial jobs (2005) is still the country's largest
The pharmaceutical industry and the electronics industry with highly educated
labor are well represented in the city and its suburbs; likewise, several of the
large magazines and publishers are located in central Copenhagen. Many companies
in other industries also have their headquarters and research and development
departments in the city. Many of the former industrial areas are today built up
with homes or office buildings.
Many service industries that serve the administration, industry and the
country's other businesses are concentrated in Greater Copenhagen. This applies
to wholesale trade, freight and air transport, telecommunications, data
processing and information technology, consulting engineering and architectural
services, technological research and other business consultancy.
With 37,000 students (2007), the University of Copenhagen is the country's
largest. Other significant higher education institutions are the Business
School in Frederiksberg and the Technical University of Denmark in Lyngby. In
addition, School of Architecture, College of Dentistry and the University
of IT. Rigshospitalet in Østerbro is the Danish hospital system's leading
institution and also functions as a university hospital.