Burundi. According to
Countryaah, there were battles all year between the Tutsi
army and hutumilis. It was also reported that Hutus who
returned from Tanzania were killed by the army. Probably,
the multi-year conflict continued to require hundreds of
deaths each month.
At the same time, with its fierce advance against armed
Hutus, the Tutsid-dominated coup government also sought to
strengthen its reputation. Former President Sylvestre
Ntibantunganya was allowed in June to leave the US embassy,
where he sought protection since he was deposed in July
1996. Several influential Tutsis were indicted before the
Supreme Court for involvement in the assassination of
President Melchior Ndadaye in 1993, which triggered civil
war a UN tribunal would investigate the murder.
A government offer for peace negotiations divided both
groups. Since the dominant hutumilism CNDD, yes, fighting
broke out between CNDD and the even more radical PALIPEHUTU.
Charles Mukasi, leader of the Tutsid-dominated UPRONA
government party, was arrested since he publicly protested
against the negotiations.
Although, for humanitarian reasons, the neighboring
countries relied on the penalties imposed after the 1996
coup, severe conditions were reported for the civilian
population. The fighting between the hutumilis made the
In September, UN Independent Investigation on Burundi (UNIIB)
made a report to the UN Human Rights Council. It found that
serious, systematic and widespread human rights violations
were taking place in the country and that impunity was
almost total. Against this background, the Human Rights
Council set up an inquiry commission for Burundi. This move
was rejected by the regime; in October it expelled the 3
UNIIB experts and terminated the cooperation with the UN
Commissioner for Human Rights.
In April, the ICC decided to open a preliminary
investigation into the situation in Burundi. The regime
again responded 6 months later when Burundi's parliament by
overwhelming majority (94 out of 110 parliamentarians)
decided that the country should step out of the ICC. Ten
cases later, South Africa announced that this country also
withdrew from the ICC. Several other African countries
indicated that they were also considering withdrawing in
protest that the Court has been used as a political
instrument by the West against Africa since its inception.
The Court has failed to investigate and prosecute the West
and its allies with extensive war crimes in Afghanistan, Sri
Lanka, Iraq, Yemen and Palestine. With 34 out of 124
countries, the group of African countries was the largest
member group in the ICC. (Burundi politicians back
international criminal court withdrawal, Guardian
In January 2017, Minister of Water, Environment and
Planning Emmanuel Niyonkuru was shot and killed. The regime
escalated its revenge killings.
In May, the president set up a commission to draft
proposals for amendments to the constitution. In particular,
the removal of restrictions on re-election of the president.