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Yearbook 1997

Brazil. According to Countryaah, President Cardoso assured himself during the year that he would be eligible for the 1998 presidential election. He did so through a constitutional amendment that was implemented in a democratic manner.

In April, MST, the movement of the landless workers, conducted a demonstration called one of the largest aimed at the Cardoso government. The demonstration brought together more than 25,000 workers with united Catholic Catholic bishops, union leaders and prominent left-wing sympathizers. It turned against the government's policy of a freer market economy.

In April, Congress passed a law that classified torture as a crime. The origin of the law was amateur films, broadcast by the TV channel Globo, which showed various forms of police brutality. It also led to nine military police officers being arrested in São Paulo and six in Rio de Janeiro. President Cardoso also appointed a respected reform friend to the head of the recently established Human Rights Secretariat in Brazil, which has the task of monitoring the police behavior in the country.

Throughout the year, more than 70 prison riots occurred in the state of São Paulo. The prison riots that occurred at the end of the year demanded the lives of more than ten people.

1997 Brazil

Vargas had promised free elections in 1938, but according to the Constitution he could not be re-elected. Therefore, in 1937 he conducted a coup d'etat and gave himself dictatorial power. That same year he proclaimed "Estado Novo" (new state). A model of state following the pattern of Italian fascism.

The new state brought only minimal changes to the power structure. It strengthened the alliance between the major property owners, the industrial bourgeoisie and the military. An alliance that would override the contradictions between these groups and subordinate to a strong state power characterized by political and administrative centralization. In connection with Estado Novo, the modern Brazilian trade union movement was created. The trade union movement became subject to the state apparatus, and developed into a social support organization for the workers, without the possibility of political impact. The international companies and parts of the Brazilian industrial citizenship had long wanted economic liberalization.

In 1945 - the same year that Vargas had released the political prisoners and promised new elections - he was ousted by a coup. The next five years were characterized by faltering central management. The forces that overthrew Vargas had a poorly founded political line with strong mutual tension. The government was a compromise, with Liberal General Eurico Gaspar Dutra as president. Vargas's policy - with state support for the private sector - was largely continued. A number of measures were taken to encourage the expansion of the private industry. Foreign capital interests again began to assert themselves. In particular, the United States played a prominent role during this period, and an agreement with the United States guaranteed Brazil financial, technical and military assistance.

In 1950, Vargas was elected president by a large majority on a social reform program. But his position was uncertain because the military which had been in power for the previous five years constituted a strong opposition. Vargas underwent important reforms in the health and social services. Food supply, power supply and communication system were improved. Vargas again began to protect the national industry and safeguard the country's commodities. Foreign companies' export of currency was limited and initiatives were initiated to gain national control over the oil. In 1953, a state oil monopoly was established with the creation of Petrobrás.

As before, the unions were allowed to develop. But the pressure from the international companies grew stronger, and on August 24, 1954, Vargas killed himself. He left a political will in which he blamed "the dark forces" - a reference to imperialism and its domestic allies - to prevent him from responding to popular and national wishes.

In the years that followed, foreign investment rose after being reduced for a few years. The industry was concentrated around Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. From the northeast, labor flowed to. Unemployment rose and industrial workers' real wages fell significantly. National industrial citizenship was pushed into the background, and the government deliberately restricted the national industry in favor of foreign interests.

While Joselino Kubitschek was president (1956-60), national citizenship increasingly merged with foreign capital interests met with generous benevolence. Economic growth was unparalleled in the country's history - with an 80% increase over 5 years. During Kubitschek, a decision was also made to move the country's capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia. A city built from the ground 1500 km inland.


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